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smoking weed raises blood pressure

Marijuana linked to high blood pressure risk

Research we’re watching

People who smoke marijuana may face a higher risk of dying of complications of high blood pressure than people who never use the drug, new research suggests.

The study included 1,213 people ages 20 and older who were part of a larger national health survey that began in 2005. Those who said they’d ever used marijuana (57%) were considered users. Researchers then looked at data on different causes of death in 2011 and estimated the association between marijuana use with death from high blood pressure, heart disease, and stroke.

They concluded that marijuana users had a higher risk of death related to high blood pressure than non-users. In addition to increasing the risk of heart disease, high blood pressure can lead to kidney disease and heart failure. However, the estimates of marijuana use may not be reliable, since the researchers don’t know if the participants used marijuana continuously after first trying it. On the flip side, people may underreport their use of illegal substances.

Still, the results suggest that the cardiovascular risks of marijuana use may be similar to smoking cigarettes. The study was published in the Aug. 9, 2017, European Journal of Preventive Cardiology.

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As a service to our readers, Harvard Health Publishing provides access to our library of archived content. Please note the date of last review or update on all articles. No content on this site, regardless of date, should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinician.

People who smoke marijuana may be more likely to die from complications of high blood pressure than non-users of the drug.

How does cannabis affect blood pressure?

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Contents

  1. Does marijuana lower or raise blood pressure?
  2. What are the cardiovascular effects of cannabis?
  3. Weed and blood pressure medication
  4. Other effects of weed on blood pressure

Since smoking a joint can lead to a relaxing high, you might wonder about cannabis use and its effect on blood pressure. We know that weed can make your eyes red , but does it also raise or lower blood pressure, or does it not have any effect at all? If you have high blood pressure, is marijuana safe to consume?

Here we’ll address how smoking weed, including medical marijuana, could factor into your blood pressure levels.

Does marijuana lower or raise blood pressure?

To answer this question, we should focus on two of the primary cannabinoids present in cannabis : cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Both may exert an influence on blood pressure levels.

Dr. Bonni Goldstein, a medical adviser to Weedmaps and the director of Canna-Centers in Lawndale, California, outlined the potential effects of THC on blood pressure:

“THC can affect blood pressure depending on the dose, the route of administration, a person’s experience with THC, and a person’s underlying health. Healthy volunteers that took THC had an increase in heart rate and decrease in blood pressure. In studies where people used THC while lying down, they had elevated blood pressure. When they stood up, their blood pressure dropped and they experienced low blood pressure.”

These sudden drops in blood pressure, also known as white outs or green outs, may indeed be linked to cannabis use. Dr. Melanie Bone, a board-certified OB-GYN and cannabis specialist who practices in West Palm Beach, Florida, told Weedmaps that “cannabis may cause a drop in blood pressure on standing — known as postural hypotension.” This type of drop in blood pressure is not desirable, as it can cause vertigo and even fainting. So, when we talk about “lowering blood pressure,” we do not necessarily consider that effect beneficial to health.

Both THC and CBD may lower blood pressure in different ways. However, neither CBD nor THC should be considered a medical treatment for high blood pressure. Photo by: Gina Coleman/Weedmaps

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And how does CBD affect blood pressure? The consensus is that CBD tends to relax the blood vessels and decrease anxiety, which ultimately leads to a lowering of blood pressure. This type of blood pressure reduction is more favorable, as it is associated with decreased levels of anxiety. Both THC and CBD may lower blood pressure in different ways. However, based on available research, neither CBD nor THC should be considered a medical treatment for high blood pressure.

What are the cardiovascular effects of cannabis?

Another frequently asked question about cannabis and cardiovascular health is: can weed cause a heart attack?

First, let’s again distinguish between the cannabinoids THC and CBD. For example, CBD oils containing trace levels of THC may have very different effects than smoking a high-THC strain of marijuana. Various studies have indicated that THC may have detrimental effects on cardiovascular health, whereas CBD could be helpful to the heart.

Goldstein added, “CBD does not appear to have the same risks for the heart as THC and in fact, appears to be somewhat cardioprotective.” To support this assertion, Goldstein cited a 2010 study published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology in which researchers concluded that CBD has therapeutic potential in treating complications of diabetes, as well as some cardiovascular disorders. Most notably, CBD could reduce inflammation, a condition that can ultimately damage the blood vessels, arteries, and vital organs. So, if you apply CBD oil to your skin or swallow a few tablespoons, the impact could differ greatly than if you smoked a blunt.

To this point, there is some research that suggests smoking THC could directly or indirectly lead to a heart attack. One 2019 study titled “The Cardiovascular Effects of Marijuana: Are the Potential Adverse Effects Worth the High?” and published in the Journal of the Missouri State Medical Association showed that some people experienced a heart attack within an hour of smoking cannabis.

Bone, however, argued, “On careful study, many of the patients also smoked cigarettes and were obese, making it hard to draw absolute conclusions. Also, the observations were made on cannabis of unknown origin, not cannabis from a dispensary.” The fact that the cannabis did not come from a registered dispensary is significant, as there is no available lab testing to determine what other compounds may have been present.

The bottom line is that there have been studies demonstrating a questionable association between smoking weed and having a heart attack, and more research is necessary.

Weed and blood pressure medication

You might also be wondering, what if you’re smoking weed while taking blood pressure medication? Will there be an adverse reaction? If you are smoking THC-rich cannabis and taking medication for high blood pressure, the answer is that there could be.

Goldstein explained, “Smoking cannabis can be harmful for those with heart disease or hypertension since the smoke contains carbon monoxide. This gas binds to the hemoglobin in red blood cells, displacing oxygen off of the red blood cells which results in less oxygen going to the body’s tissues, including the heart. People with heart disease or high blood pressure should avoid smoking.”

Instead, Goldstein recommends other methods of cannabis use, such as sublingual tinctures or edibles, which she says are safe to use if someone is on blood pressure medication. Further, Bone stressed that people who use cannabis and are on blood pressure medications need to be mindful of the possibility of an interaction with other prescription medications. This means monitoring blood pressure and reporting any dizziness to your doctor, who can adjust your dosages accordingly.

People who use cannabis and are on blood pressure medications need to be mindful of the possibility of an interaction with other prescription medications. Photo by: Gina Coleman/Weedmaps

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In particular, the blood thinner warfarin was shown in a 2017 study published in the journal Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports to interact with cannabidiol (CBD) in certain epileptic individuals . In line with Bone’s advice, researchers concluded that patient lab work should be monitored closely.

While it is possible for warfarin and other medications to interact with cannabis, there are no guarantees, and the 2017 study focused on patients with epilepsy rather than on the general population. As Dr. Bone reported, “In my private practice, I have not encountered a significant negative interaction between blood pressure medication and cannabis.”

Other effects of weed on blood pressure

There may be other effects of marijuana on blood pressure that health practitioners have yet to discover. All potential effects depend on the individual’s existing health problems, especially co-morbid conditions such as diabetes and obesity.

Can people without these conditions safely indulge in marijuana? A healthy individual’s body may appear as a well-oiled machine, but Bone disputes that analogy, pointing out that, “Unlike a car, where we replace the brakes or tires, the heart never gets a vacation and the blood vessels need to keep working forever. And the nervous system, which directs the show like a conductor, is on duty 24/7.”

Moderation, then, may be key in integrating a cannabis regimen into your healthcare plan. Consult with your physician before you begin using cannabis or CBD products and discuss any medications you are currently taking.

Learn how cannabis affects blood pressure and what questions you should ask your doctor before starting a regimen. ]]>

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regenerative cannabis

Regenerative Cannabis Farming

Providing information, inspiration and recognition of regenerative farming practices to the cannabis community and beyond.

Regenerative Cannabis Farming

Providing information, inspiration and recognition of regenerative farming practices to the cannabis community and beyond.

The 2020 Farm Award closes on March 15th!

This is your final chance to be recognized as Oregon’s best!

Congratulations Organic Medicinals!

Organic Medicinals is the 2019 Regenerative Cannabis Farm Award winner at the Emerald Cup!

Honoring Spencer Hodgson

The regenerative farming family sends love and peace to Spencer and his family.

“You have all eternity through which to live in various forms.”

What is regenerative agriculture? We asked these farmers.

What is a Regenerative Cannabis Farm?

A Regenerative Cannabis Farm cultivates medicine under the sun, in native soil with biology. It works beyond the boundaries of the cultivation site. It integrates the surrounding environment and community into the systems that build soil, restore habitat, protect water quality and encourage mutualistic relationships. It breeds resilience and collaboration. It celebrates diversity in its soil, plants and people. It values quality over quantity. It works year-round with the seasons. It is bioregional and heterogeneous. And it is guided by principles and ethics.

In a word, a Regenerative Cannabis Farm regenerates.

Providing information, inspiration and recognition of regenerative farming practices to the cannabis community and beyond.

Can Cannabis Support Regenerative Agriculture?

The cannabis industry is going big, and so is its pollution potential. Just like any other crop, large-scale cannabis cultivation has an impact on the environment. Regenerative agriculture might be the natural answer to the need for more sustainable cannabis products. Read on to learn how your cannabis grow can be regenerative too.

Together with fossil fuels, agriculture and industrial farming are the greatest cause of climate change. The impact of agriculture on the environment will be a hot topic for years, and since cannabis processing is growing fast and going global, this industry must take its share of the responsibility.

HOW THE CANNABIS INDUSTRY IMPACTS THE ENVIRONMENT

Researchers analysed the impact of large-scale cannabis growing in northern California, finding soils and ecosystems in the region to be seriously damaged by extensive cultivation. Cannabis farming requires a generous amount of water, which can contribute to droughts, while its waste water pouring into soil and rivers is often polluted with some sort of residual chemicals.

Moreover, the volatile compounds that produce cannabis’ aroma can dangerously increase ozone levels surrounding a big plantation. Finally, the carbon footprint from grow room and greenhouse energy usage is a relevant issue too.

Even if it was possible, splitting large cultivations into thousands of home businesses would not solve the problem. What every grower, big or small, should aim for is a localised and customised practice of sustainable agriculture. And further ahead, regenerative agriculture.

WHAT IS REGENERATIVE AGRICULTURE?

Improving biodiversity is at the centre of regenerative agriculture. Local variations on regenerative agricultural practices have been around for centuries. Retrieving and evolving these practices means planning “closed-loop” operations that are able to restore the natural features of air, water, soil, and their ecosystems, plus providing decent yields with each harvest.

Regenerative agriculture goes a step further than sustainable agriculture with its healing effect on the environment, which could also improve crop quality. Easier said than done, of course.

Nevertheless, just to make an example, industrial hemp is, by nature, able to sequester toxic substances from polluted soils and regenerate them into arable land over time. Hemp’s large canopy also prevents the growth of bad weeds, and its stems have hundreds of eco-friendly applications.

Regardless of the crop, regenerative agriculture might mitigate farming impact on the environment. However, whether it’s because it might be economically inefficient or for other reasons, regenerative practices aren’t so popular even among organic farmers.

WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF REGENERATIVE AGRICULTURE FOR CANNABIS GROWERS AND CONSUMERS?

Growing cannabis in an environmentally sustainable way is not easy, particularly in high-yield commercial systems. Moreover, a large part of today’s cannabis is grown indoors, whether for efficiency or legal requirements.

Is it possible for cannabis farmers to modify their growing processes in order to protect local soil, water, and ecosystems? Does it make sense for the home grower to change proven habits to follow a few environmentally friendly gardening practices?

Converting a regular cannabis grow into a regenerative one takes some effort. Setting up a brand-new regenerative operation takes even more effort. However, regenerative agriculture brings some advantages that might be properly monetised. Here are the main benefits for consumers of regenerative agriculture cannabis derivatives:

• Enhanced flavour of products
• Higher amount of beneficial compounds
• No chemical residues
• New strains and locally adapted genetic lines

These are the potential benefits of regenerative agriculture for growers, citizens, and everybody else:

• Helps restore ecosystems and natural soil balance
• Naturally prevents or reduces pests
• Reduces water consumption
• Reduces power consumption
• Eliminates chemical fertilisers and pesticides

HOW TO START A REGENERATIVE CANNABIS GARDEN

Both the commercial grower and the home grower would do well to stop using fertilisers and wasteful watering practices. No one is innocent, we know that! But then again, we can minimise our garden’s impact on the Earth by adopting some of the following regenerative techniques:

Minimise artificial light. Reduce the use of grow lamps and follow the sun’s natural cycle. Set up energy-efficient greenhouses instead of grow boxes.

Rainwater collection systems send water directly to the roots. Utilise drip irrigation to deliver water to precise locations and reduce the amount used.

Crop rotation, companion planting, and biodiversity can help control pests and activate synergies. Only natural pesticides are allowed.

Use no-till farming, on-site composting, and bokashi as primary sources of nutrients.

Mulching and cover crops keep ecosystems alive during the off-season, suppressing bad weed growth, enriching the soil, preventing soil erosion or hardening, and providing habitats for beneficial organisms.

Worm farming. Enrich the soil with vermiculture to establish a synergistic network of bacteria and other organisms. Farm animals also produce nutrient-rich manure.

That’s not all you can try. You can also read our articles on how to grow organic cannabis and how to make homemade compost. And, you can even create your own landraces! By working with cannabis plants in your unique regenerating environment, you can produce genetically unique strains native to their farms. Will these “regenerative genetics” be the top-shelf outdoor strains of the near future?

CAN REGENERATIVE CANNABIS FARMING REVERSE CLIMATE CHANGE?

Even if the cannabis industry is just a small piece of the big agricultural cake, on a local scale, every grower can make small changes to reduce their impact on the environment.

Small steps towards a more sustainable cannabis economy have been taken here and there around the world. In California, a new prize was established to award cannabis growers applying regenerative agriculture techniques: the Regenerative Cannabis Farm Award. Even more important, people are starting to ask where their cannabis comes from, and how it’s grown.

More and more organic cannabis growers are entering the scene, while millions of people already grow their own cannabis at home in a sustainable way. The cannabis and hemp industry should adopt regenerative growing practices where possible, thus having a positive impact both on people and the environment. Leading by example, the cannabis industry can garner even more legitimacy for the plant.

What is regenerative agriculture? Can we apply these techniques to cannabis cultivation? Click to find out how regenerative agriculture could save the planet. ]]>

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dry out weed fast

Quick Drying

Quickly Dry your Marijuana Buds

Fast & quick ways to dry your cannabis buds

I’d like to share a few different ways to quick-dry your marijuana and cannabis buds for fast sampling.

Please remember though, that properly dried and cured marijuana only gets better with time. It smokes smoother without harshness or the green taste. However, these tips to drying your weed quickly work very well.

You do retain THC levels, they may get crispy (the buds silly), but these function just fine. These processes will help you dry your pot quickly and be able to enjoy it in minutes or a few hours. And then you should be ‘crispy’ too.

Place your trimmed buds on a cookie sheet spread out evenly. Set your oven to 125-140 degrees Fahrenheit (no hotter!). Leave for 10 minutes, remove for 5 minutes and turn buds. Repeat once more.

Rig a flat piece of 10″ foil to be held under a 100 watt light bulb (no hotter) within 2-4 inches. Turn your buds every 1-2 minutes. Should be smoke-able within about 10-15 minutes time.

Take your buds and flatly wrap them in paper or use a paper envelope and place them over your water heater, radiator, or the back of your TV. Pot should be dry in a few hours or overnight.

Place buds flat on a plate. Use your microwave on 50% power or less (important not to burn). Set for only 10-12 seconds at a time, remove and turn, repeat as necessary. Done quickly, be careful.

I’ve heard you can use a food dehydrator, it takes a little longer (hours) but should work as well if you have one one of these.

Also, if your buds get too dry (crispy), you can put them in a ziploc bag or glass sealable jar with a piece of orange peel. yep, it will smoke much nicer by morning.

NEVER have your heat source be more than 150 degrees Fahrenheit! Any hotter will actually burn or vaporize the THC or resin glands. this IS what gets you high, so be careful of this.

These tips should help you enjoy a little of your smoke a little faster. However – I still recommend proper drying and curing – You WILL notice the difference.

You can quickly dry and cure your marijuana buds. It can be fast, but remember your cannabis actually gets better when dried and cured properly. Quick dry your pot or weed. Fast ways to dry cannabis.

How To Dry Cannabis Quickly

You want the truth about quick drying cannabis? We think you can handle it. So in this blog, we’ve compiled the best methods to get you a fast stash post-harvest. We can’t promise perfection but these methods will put a rush on the drying process and give you a decent bud to toke on.

OK, so you have cannabis plants close to harvest and insufficient marijuana reserves to see you through the typical 30+ day period between harvest and cured finished product. Perhaps you don’t even have a stash to make it through the average 1–2 weeks it takes to dry buds conventionally? Or perhaps you are just curious whether or not your flowers are ready to harvest? Regardless of your personal motivations, you have plenty of options when it comes to quickly drying cannabis. The problem is, the most popularised quick-dry methods will degrade buds so much in the process, they are hardly worth the effort.

Our readers deserve better. Not only will we break down simple ways to speed-dry Sinsemilla without ruining your reefer. We have also included a sticky surprise in the text for those cannabis concentrate lovers seeking more flavoursome extracts using the fresh non-dried material.

BROWN BAGS AND COMPUTER FANS

Simple brown paper bags, like the kind you get from the bakery, are perfect for drying buds. Especially popcorn buds. If you place a handful or two of freshly manicured smaller nuggets into a paper bag and leave them to dry for 2–3 days your halfway there. Ideally, you should leave them another 3 days to dry completely. But if you’re in a hurry, proceed to the next step.

Next, turn on your laptop and figure out where the fan is. Modern laptops all have fans expelling warm air to keep the internal workings of the device cool. Place the small half-dry nuggets on a paper towel on the keyboard. Or on a paper towel directly in front of the fan vents, if you have a model that vents a different way. Turn buds over every 10 minutes or so, until they feel dry to the touch. This may take an hour or longer, but the buds will still pack a punch. Don’t expect a full bouquet of aromas or mouth-watering flavour, rather an acceptable if a little harsh tasting smoke.

CONVERT THE BOILER ROOM INTO A DRYING BOX

Most private homes have a boiler room. The water boiler inside keeps the boiler room temperature pretty cosy and relative humidity is minimal. This is a great place to quick-dry cannabis. It’s best to place all small buds in brown bags, but you can use string to hang bigger buds as you usually would when drying. The big difference is that you are going to turn up the heat by switching on the hot water heater. You can completely dry huge harvests in 3 days if you leave the hot water on for most of that time. That’s sure to spike the utility bills. With normal use, expect the small buds to be dry enough to smoke in just 3–4 days, with thicker hanging colas requiring 6–7 days. This method has a lower impact on quality than most, but the buds still won’t taste fantastic.

ALTERNATIVE: GO LIVE

The dabbing trend of 2018 is live resin concentrates. Even the most potent extracts like wax and shatter have some room for improvement. Using fresh frozen flowers rather than carefully dried and cured buds is the breakthrough US extract artists have made to produce gourmet concentrates with far more terpenes. Something is definitely lost in transition with the standard BHO extraction methods. Live resin boasts the same skyhigh potency with a vastly improved flavour profile. Unfortunately, this is probably out of reach to the average ordinary home grower. The cannabis must be kept at subcritical temperatures for the entire extraction process and you really need lab conditions and equipment to accomplish this. Nonetheless it’s a top-shelf treat coming to all good cannabis clubs, coffee shops, and dispensaries in 2018. Be on the lookout for names like “sauce”, “sap”, and “syrup” popping up on the menu.

SUN-DRIED WEED

Outdoor ganja farmers have dried marijuana placed on rocks in direct sunlight for thousands of years. It’s certainly not the most efficient method to dry cannabis, but it works. Both heat and sunlight will degrade quality. However, if you want to dry small buds fast and it’s hot and sunny outside, you could do worse than tossing a handful of popcorn buds in a brown bag and sun-drying them. Best use a rock to weigh down the bag of buds in direct sunlight, you don’t want a gust of wind swiping your weed. Then you play the waiting game. After a day or two of warm dry sunny weather, you should have some crispy buds to toke on. Again flavour and potency will have deteriorated, so you are not getting the most from your marijuana with this method.

DESPERATE MEASURES

Baking buds in the oven is a horrible idea. Just don’t do it. It really is a waste of weed. Oven temperatures are far, far, far too hot for cannabis. Even on a low setting—still too hot. Sure the buds will dry out in minutes, but you’ll also have cooked off most of the cannabinoids. These buds will taste like burnt plant material and won’t get you high.

Microwave marijuana is another guaranteed disappointment. Nuking buds with 10-second blasts in the microwave is a disastrous way to dry weed. These methods likely origins are “the big book of bad ideas” and are to be avoided.

We all know that you really ought to slowly dry and cure marijuana. Sometimes you need to test for potency or just need a stash. Let’s talk quick drying weed. ]]>

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should you tell your doctor you smoke pot

Your anesthesiologist needs to know if you smoke pot

When Colorado legalized marijuana, it became a pioneer in creating new policies to deal with the drug.

Now the state’s surgeons, nurses, and anesthesiologists are becoming pioneers of a different sort in understanding what weed may do to patients who go under the knife.

Their observations and initial research show that marijuana use may affect patients’ responses to anesthesia on the operating table — and, depending on the patient’s history of using the drug, either help or hinder their symptoms afterward in the recovery room.

Colorado makes for an interesting laboratory. Since the state legalized marijuana for medicine in 2000 and allowed for its recreational sale in 2014, more Coloradans are using it — and they may also be more willing to tell their doctors about it.

Roughly 17% of Coloradans said they used marijuana in the previous 30 days in 2017, according to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, more than double the 8% who reported doing so in 2006. By comparison, just 9% of U.S. residents said they used marijuana in 2017.

“It has been destigmatized here in Colorado,” said Dr. Andrew Monte, an associate professor of emergency medicine and medical toxicology at the University of Colorado School of Medicine and UCHealth. “We’re ahead of the game in terms of our ability to talk to patients about it. We’re also ahead of the game in identifying complications associated with use.”

One small study of Colorado patients published in May found marijuana users required more than triple the amount of one common sedation medicine, propofol, as did nonusers.

Those findings and anecdotal reports are prompting additional questions from the study’s author, Dr. Mark Twardowski, and others in the state’s medical field: If pot users indeed need more anesthesia, are there increased risks for breathing problems during minor procedures? Are there higher costs with the use of more medication, if a second or third bottle of anesthesia must be routinely opened? And what does regular cannabis use mean for recovery post-surgery?

But much is still unknown about marijuana’s impact on patients because it remains illegal on the federal level, making studies difficult to fund or undertake.

It’s even difficult to quantify how many of the estimated 800,000 to 1 million anesthesia procedures that are performed in Colorado each year involve marijuana users, according to Dr. Joy Hawkins, a professor of anesthesiology at the University of Colorado School of Medicine and president of the Colorado Society of Anesthesiologists. The Colorado Hospital Association said it doesn’t track anesthesia needs or costs specific to marijuana users.

As more states legalize cannabis to varying degrees, discussions about the drug are happening elsewhere, too. On a national level, the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists recently updated its clinical guidelines to highlight potential risks for and needs of marijuana users. American Society of Anesthesiologists spokeswoman Theresa Hill said that the use of marijuana in managing pain is a topic under discussion but that more research is needed. This year, it endorsed a federal bill calling for fewer regulatory barriers on marijuana research.

Why should patients disclose marijuana use?

No matter where patients live, though, many nurses and doctors from around the country agree: Patients should disclose marijuana use before any surgery or procedure. Linda Stone, a certified registered nurse anesthetist in Raleigh, N.C., acknowledged that patients in states where marijuana is illegal might be more hesitant.

“We really don’t want patients to feel like there’s stigma. They really do need to divulge that information,” Stone said. “We are just trying to make sure that we provide the safest care.”

In Colorado, Hawkins said, anesthesiologists have noticed that patients who use marijuana are more tolerant of some common anesthesia drugs, such as propofol, which helps people fall asleep during general anesthesia or stay relaxed during conscious “twilight” sedation. But higher doses can increase potentially serious side effects such as low blood pressure and depressed heart function.

Limited airway flow is another issue for people who smoke marijuana. “It acts very much like cigarettes, so it makes your airway irritated,” she said.

To be sure, anesthesia must be adjusted to accommodate patients of all sorts, apart from cannabis use. Anesthesiologists are prepared to adapt and make procedures safe for all patients, Hawkins said. And in some emergency surgeries, patients might not be in a position to disclose their cannabis use ahead of time.

Even when they do, a big challenge for medical professionals is gauging the amounts of marijuana consumed, as the potency varies widely from one joint to the next or when ingested through marijuana edibles. And levels of THC, the chemical with psychoactive effects in marijuana, have been increasing in the past few decades.

“For marijuana, it’s a bit of the Wild West,” Hawkins said. “We just don’t know what’s in these products that they’re using.”

Marijuana’s effects on pain after surgery

Colorado health providers are also observing how marijuana changes patients’ symptoms after they leave the operating suite — particularly relevant amid the ongoing opioid epidemic.

“We’ve been hearing reports about patients using cannabis, instead of opioids, to treat their postoperative pain,” said Dr. Mark Steven Wallace, chair of the pain medicine division in the anesthesiology department at the University of California-San Diego, in a state that also has legalized marijuana. “I have a lot of patients who say they prefer it.”

Matthew Sheahan, 25, of Denver, said he used marijuana to relieve pain after the removal of his wisdom teeth four years ago. After surgery, he smoked marijuana rather than using the ibuprofen prescribed but didn’t disclose this to his doctor because pot was illegal in Ohio, where he had the procedure. He said his doctor told him his swelling was greatly reduced. “I didn’t experience the pain that I thought I would,” Sheahan said.

In a study underway, Wallace is working with patients who’ve recently had surgery for joint replacement to see whether marijuana can be used to treat pain and reduce the need for opioids.

But this may be a Catch-22 for regular marijuana users. They reported feeling greater pain and consumed more opioids in the hospital after vehicle crash injuries compared with nonusers, according to a study published last year in the journal Patient Safety in Surgery.

“The hypothesis is that chronic marijuana users develop a tolerance to pain medications, and since they do not receive marijuana while in the hospital, they require a higher replacement dose of opioids,” said Dr. David Bar-Or, who directs trauma research at Swedish Medical Center in Englewood, Colo., and several other hospitals in Colorado, Texas, Missouri and Kansas. He is studying a synthetic form of THC called dronabinol as a potential substitute for opioids in the hospital.

Again, much more research is needed.

“We know very little about marijuana because we’ve not been allowed to study it in the way we study any other drug,” Hawkins said. “We’re all wishing we had a little more data to rely on.”

When Colorado legalized marijuana, it became a pioneer in creating new policies to deal with the drug.

How to Talk to Your Doctor About Cannabis Use

Have you had a bad experience disclosing cannabis use to a doctor? Did a doctor’s attitude toward cannabis impact the quality of care you received? You’re not alone.

Unfortunately, a prevailing stigma, lack of exposure to current marijuana research , and confusion about the legality of discussing cannabis with patients are still barriers within the medical community that keep doctors from treating their cannabis-using patients accurately and fairly.

One thing medical and non-medical cannabis users have in common with the rest of the world is that all need access to medical care. So what is a cannabis user to do?

To answer this question, Weedmaps News spoke with two experts on the subject. Dr. Bonni Goldstein is a Medical Director of Canna-Centers, a medical marijuana evaluation service in Lawndale, California, and a medical adviser to Weedmaps. Ted Chan is the CEO of CareDash , a fast-growing healthcare review website.

Both Goldstein and Chan have consulted with thousands of patients, many of whom report a variety of poor experiences disclosing cannabis use to doctors. Based on their respective years of research, and field experience in the subject, here are some key words of advice to keep in mind when talking to your doctor about weed.

Be Transparent (and Prepare for a Negative Response)

The first thing both adult users and medical cannabis patients should realize when disclosing to a physician is that they’re likely to be met with either prejudice, ignorance, or both.

Goldstein has seen thousands of medical cannabis patients, many of whom have reported frustrating conversations with their doctors about using cannabis as medicine.

“Unfortunately, most doctors know nothing about cannabis as medicine or about the endocannabinoid system (ECS). There is no formal education about these topics in the majority of medical school or residency programs.” Goldstein said. “Only about 9% of medical schools even mention cannabis as medicine in their curriculum. And the reality is that we as doctors are taught that cannabis is a drug of abuse.”

Goldstein added that those who disclose non-medical cannabis use to doctors are likely to be lectured or even diagnosed with cannabis use disorder , a clinical impairment of control over cannabis use despite harmful or adverse effects.

Even with these systemic biases within the medical community, it’s ultimately better to err on the side of full disclosure with a physician.

For all of marijuana’s potentially therapeutic properties, there are risks involved in mixing it with other medications . Drug.com lists 612 drugs that interact with cannabis, 129 of which have major interactions. Recent findings suggest that cannabis users need more than twice the usual amount of anesthesia before undergoing endoscopic surgery. It’s also possible to be allergic to cannabis , and experience symptoms typical of other food, skin, or airborne allergies. The more your doctors know, the better chance they have of giving you proper care.

That’s why Chan recommends being completely transparent about your patterns of cannabis use. “If you use a little, say that,” Chan said. “If it’s daily, recreational, or to manage a specific symptom, don’t be afraid to say it.”

According to Chan, full transparency is not only a way to increase your chances of getting the medical care you need, but also a quicker route to finding out the doctor’s attitude toward cannabis. Just be prepared to find out you know more than your doctor about cannabis and how it affects your body.

Be Proactive in Gauging Your Doctor’s Reaction

Since most doctors you’re likely to encounter either know nothing or have a professional bias against cannabis, it’s important to be proactive and gauge how your doctor responds when you disclose cannabis use.

As CEO of CareDash, Chan has read thousands of reviews of doctors made by their patients, and talks to many patients personally. He considers patient advocacy a central role at CareDash. There’s no shortage of reviews on the site describing incidents where a patient was either misdiagnosed or denied the care they needed based on physicians’ bias against cannabis as a drug of abuse.

“ We have 160,000 reviews on the site, and I’d say about 100 involve negative experiences around marijuana impacting patient experience,” Chan said.

In states where medical cannabis is legal, CareDash reviewers have described incidents where doctors seem convinced that the patient is trying to scam them for a medical marijuana recommendation. Reviewers often express surprise that their physician seemed to have no working knowledge of medical cannabis research.

A New York patient reported seeing a neurologist who immediately dismissed her for “ seeking medical marijuana ” after the woman expressed a desire to use cannabidiol (CBD) oil for her foot neuropathy instead of a pharmaceutical prescription. A patient in Nebraska who went to an emergency room with the flu reported being misdiagnosed as having a rare disease the doctor claimed was from smoking too much marijuana. According to the patient, the visit was during flu season, and the doctor refused to test the patient for the flu, and made the diagnosis only after the patient had disclosed cannabis use to the nurse.

If your doctor has an overtly negative reaction when you tell them you use cannabis, Chan recommends seeking a second opinion.

You may also encounter a physician who seems reluctant to even address the subject of cannabis use when you disclose. According to Goldstein, most physicians don’t know they are free to discuss medical cannabis with their patients. Many think that because it is federally illegal, they can get in trouble for speaking to patients about it.

“In 2002, the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals held that the federal government could not punish or threaten to punish a doctor for telling a patient that his or her use of medical marijuana use is proper,” Goldstein noted. “The relationship between physician and patient is special and protected, so physicians have free speech as long as they tell the truth about the science. No physician has been punished federally due to this protection.”

Ask Your Doctor How They Feel About Cannabis

If you find an appropriate time to do so, Goldstein recommends that medical patients ask their doctor how they feel about cannabis as medicine.

“I tell patients who are nervous about bringing up medical cannabis use with their physician to first ask ‘What do you think about the use of medical cannabis for . (Insert ailment)?’ This way you are not sharing info that you may not be ready to share and you are feeling out the physician’s attitude toward cannabis.”

If You Have a Good Relationship with Your Doctor, Consider Sharing Medical Information

If you find your physician negative or dismissing of medical cannabis, Dr. Goldstein recommends following up via email or in person with a scientific article or two about medical cannabis for the ailment in question, or about the ECS.

“Everyone says there is not enough research [about medical cannabis] and this is true, but there is lots of research on medical cannabis for the more common ailments. And it can be accessed easily on the internet through Google Scholar or PubMed,” Goldstein said. “Giving your physicians published research in a non-threatening way is a good way to start the conversation.”

According to Chan, an overwhelming majority of doctors are quite averse to accepting medical research from patients. So if you’re going to try sharing cannabis information with your doctor, it might be best to wait until you’ve established an amicable relationship with them. Both Chan and Goldstein highly recommend elevating the conversation with technical and scientific terms (saying “cannabis” instead of “weed,” for example). If you’re a medical cannabis patient, refer to cannabis as medicine and emphasize how it helps you.

Don’t Be Afraid to Switch Doctors

According to Chan, there’s a growing pool of weed-friendly doctors who understand the science and respect medical and responsible adult use of cannabis. Though they may still be few and far between, Chan says their ranks are growing, and cannabis users should seek them out when possible.

“Patients have a choice. It is their right to have a primary care physician who is understanding and supportive of their lifestyle choices,” Chan said. “It is in the interest of both the doctor and the patient to be aligned.

“I view it as more of a dating situation. As you might be on a date that doesn’t work out,” Chan continued, “be friendly, but don’t be afraid to shop around the next time you need a checkup and find a physician who is more aligned with your choice to use marijuana.”

If one is available in your area, Goldstein recommends seeing a cannabis specialist in addition to your doctor visits. “ If you are asking your physician for medical cannabis advice, you will likely be disappointed as, again, most don’t know anything. Seeing a cannabis specialist is likely going to be much more beneficial if you are looking for specific advice about cannabinoids , product, and dosing .”

How to Talk to Your Doctor About Cannabis Use Have you had a bad experience disclosing cannabis use to a doctor? Did a doctor’s attitude toward cannabis impact the quality of care you received? ]]>

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og kush cbd strain

Og kush cbd strain

OG Kush CBD cannabis seeds by Dinafem Seeds belong to a Sativa-dominant, feminized cannabis strain that originates from the cross of an OG Kush and a CBD rich strain. OG Kush is what everyone in the States aspires to, which is not surprising at all given its complexity and high-quality. All things considered, Dinafem Seeds could not miss the chance to create a high-CBD version noted for harmoniously pulling together both sides of the coin: the recreational part and the therapeutic part.

We are sure that OG Kush CBD will cast a spell on OG-lovers as well as on those users interested in tasting a plant with a more moderate effect and the ability to reduce anxiety, muscle tension or even stimulate their appetite. As far as its effect is concerned, it has very little to do with the feminized and autoflowering versions. All those passionate about strains with complex flavours and aromas, accompanied by hints of lemon, petrol, wood and species, are sure to fall for this cannabis seed. Especially, when they get to see how easy it is to obtain generous crops of compact and smelly buds.

OG Kush CBD marijuana seeds evolve into beautiful, slender plants with short distance between nodes and broad leaves. An organic farming method is preferred if to be used for therapeutic purposes. Although a 1:1 THC/CBD ratio is guaranteed, some phenotypes can reach a 1:2 ratio if grown in ideal conditions.

OG Kush CBD is a cannabis plant that boasts a really intense flavour and aroma, with notes of lemon, oil, wood and species. Its effect, both physical and cerebral, is easy to put up with and can create a state of euphoria that remains for a while. People looking for a rich flavour and gentle effect are going to love it.

Characteristics of OG Kush CBD cannabis seeds by Dinafem Seeds

Suitable for indoors and outdoors
Sex: feminized
Genotype: 60% Sativa/ 40% Indica
Cross: OG Kush x CBD pure
Indoor flowering period: 55-60 days
Outdoor harvest time: mid-October
Indoor yield: 550 g/m2
Outdoor yield: up to 1100 g/plant
Outdoor height: up to 3 m
THC: 10%
CBD: 10%
Ratio THC/CBD: 1:1

<p>OG Kush CBD cannabis seeds by Dinafem Seeds belong to a Sativa-dominant, feminized cannabis strain that originates from the cross of an OG Kush and a CBD rich strain. OG Kush is what everyone in the States aspires to, which is not surprising at all giv

OG Kush

OG Kush was first cultivated in Florida, in the early ‘90s when a strain from Northern California was crossed with a Hindu Kush plant from Amsterdam. The result was a hybrid with a unique terpene profile that boasts a complex aroma with notes of fuel, skunk, and spice.

The genetic backbone of West Coast cannabis varieties, OG Kush arrived in Los Angeles in 1996 when Matt “Bubba” Berger brought it (along with “The Bubba,” which was later used to create the famed Bubba Kush) from Florida to legendary cultivator Josh D. Since then, OG Kush has become a worldwide staple used to create numerous famous strains like GSC and Headband. There are many different phenotypes of OG Kush, including Tahoe OG, SFV OG, and Ghost OG.

OG Kush was first cultivated in Florida, in the early ‘90s when a strain from Northern California was crossed with a Hindu Kush plant from Amsterdam. The result was a hybrid with a unique terpene profile that boasts a complex aroma with notes of fuel, skunk, and spice.

The genetic backbone of West Coast cannabis varieties, OG Kush arrived in Los Angeles in 1996 when Matt “Bubba” Berger brought it (along with “The Bubba,” which was later used to create the famed Bubba Kush) from Florida to legendary cultivator Josh D. Since then, OG Kush has become a worldwide staple used to create numerous famous strains like GSC and Headband. There are many different phenotypes of OG Kush, including Tahoe OG, SFV OG, and Ghost OG.

OG Kush is a hybrid cannabis strain. ]]>

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panama red cannabis

Panama Red

Effects

  • Energetic
  • Focused
  • Happy
  • Hungry
  • Talkative
  • Dizzy
  • Dry Eyes
  • Dry Mouth
  • Headache

Pairs Well With

  • Arts & Crafts
  • Housework
  • Eating
  • Going Out
  • Social Events

About this Sativa Strain

Panama Red is a classic, 100% sativa cannabis strain, being popular within the ‘60’s. Its deep green buds display fiery red pistils throughout. It emits a smell and produces a taste that is both reminiscent of herbal tea and/or wood, with undertones of fresh soil.

Panama Red is a landrace strain, being named after the country it was first bred within.

The THC level of Panama Red averages at 10% with some crops reaping in at 16%. Though it doesn’t have the highest THC levels out there, it’s renowned for its classic sativa effects of boosting energy, inducing creativity, and uplifting the spirits as all negativity leaves both the body and mind. This strain has been known to help with stomach issues and increase appetite as well. Panama Red is a great strain for both novice and veteran consumers alike.

Negative effects of Panama Red include headache, anxiousness, and dizziness when too much is consumed at once.

Growers should note Panama Red takes up to eleven weeks to fully flower. Because of its long cultivation time, its popularity from the 60’s slowly decreased with time, being replaced with faster growing strains that are more profitable.

Lineage

Comments

Hytiva is providing real-time dispensary menus and facilitating online ordering of medical & recreational cannabis through partnerships with local dispensaries everywhere.

Panama Red is a classic, 100% sativa cannabis strain, being popular within the &lsquo;60&rsquo;s. Its deep green buds display fiery red pistils throughout. It emits a smell and produces a taste that is both reminiscent of herbal tea and/or wood, with undertones of fresh soil. Panama Red is a landrace…

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chico kush

Chico

  • Edit
  • Info

Location
738 W. 5th St.
Across from Joe’s Bar
Hours
11-9pm 7 Days a Week
Phone
(530) 893-KUSH
Website
http://www.chicoKush.com
Owner(s)
Kush
Established
2007
Payment Method
All types accepted

Chico Kush Smoker’s Gallery is a head shop in Chico, CA. They carry a wide selection of glass products, and support local glass blowers as well as famous artists from around the world. They also offer custom heady pieces, and glass repairs. Recently, they’ve expanded to carrying a full line of hydroponic and indoor gardening equipment.

This entry is a seed, a starting point for writing a full entry. You can help LocalWiki Chico by expanding it! Just click the “Edit” button.

LocalWiki is a grassroots effort to collect, share and open the world’s local knowledge. We are a 501(c)3 non-profit organization.

Except where otherwise noted, this content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. See Copyrights.

Chico Edit Info Location 738 W. 5th St. Across from Joe’s Bar Hours 11-9pm 7 Days a Week Phone (530) 893-KUSH Website

Chico Valley Kush

by tracking#track” data-controller=”tracking” data-tracking-payload=”<"eventAction":"click","eventCategory":"Brand Name","eventLabel":"Link","brandId":10382,"fullUrl":"http://www.leafly.com/products/details/desert-blossom-farms-chico-valley-kush","productId":25731,"strainId":3692>” href=”/brands/desert-blossom-farms”>Desert Blossom Farms

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About this product

Sativa. Energetic, pain relief, euphoria Great for pain, depression, aches and pains.

About this brand

Desert Blossom Farms

About this strain

SFV OG
Terpenes

SFV OG by Cali Connection is a sativa-dominant hybrid that is great for patients who need strong pain relief but don’t want to be stuck on the couch. As the name indicates, this OG Kush relative originates from California’s San Fernando Valley. Although their names are barely distinguishable, SFV OG Kush is actually the Afghani-crossed child to SFV OG. Leading with aromatic notes of earthy pine and lemon, i ts body effects take a little longer to feel than the initial head haziness.

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Sativa. Energetic, pain relief, euphoria Great for pain, depression, aches and pains. ]]>

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waikiki queen strain

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Waikiki Queen

Taste & Smell

  • Earthy
  • Fruity
  • Sour

Effects

  • Calm
  • Focused
  • Tingly

Pairs Well With

  • Arts & Crafts
  • Housework
  • Watching TV/Movies

About this Hybrid Strain

Waikiki Queens cured nuggets are easily identifiable by their shape. They resemble thin blue spruce pine trees, being long and conical with light hues of blue interwoven with light greens and yellow pistils.

When trying it, you’ll notice why it’s named Waikiki Queen. Its aroma is like tropical citrus fruits and pineapple mixed with fresh earth, and its taste has been described as similar to sipping on a pineapple milkshake.

Those that have tried Waikiki Queen often say they have enjoyed its potential to help ease depression, headaches, stress, anxiety, and even pain. It is reputed to be relaxing for both mind and body as it suppresses racing thoughts and relaxes tense or sore muscles. Consumers also enjoy how Waikiki Queen has kept their mind focused and functional while maintaining a state of bliss.

Waikiki Queen stems from crossing the strain Hawaii with White Queen. Dominate terpenes are caryophyllene, limonene, and myrcene. Its THC levels can span between the low and mid-20’s.

Waikiki Queens cured nuggets are easily identifiable by their shape. They resemble thin blue spruce pine trees, being long and conical with light hues of blue interwoven with light greens and yellow pistils. When trying it, you&rsquo;ll notice why it&rsquo;s named Waikiki Queen. Its aroma is like… ]]>

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alaskan thunder f weed

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Alaskan Thunder Fuck

Taste & Smell

  • Spicy
  • Sweet

Effects

  • Creative
  • Hungry
  • Talkative

Pairs Well With

  • Eating
  • Exercising
  • Exploring Nature
  • Going Out
  • Social Events
  • Walking in the City

About this Sativa Strain

The amusingly named cannabis strain named Alaskan Thunder Fuck (aka Matanuska Thunder Fuck) is a sativa whose fragrance is diesel-like with a chocolate undertone. Some have reviewed this strain to have a pungent spicy, floral scent with a citrusy undertone. When harvest-ready its leaves are large and pale green, with dense spear-shaped buds covered in orange hairs and sticky white crystals.

Alaskan Thunder Fuck first blossomed in Matanuska Valley north of Anchorage, Alaska and is the daughter of indica Afghani and Northern California Sativa.

Its THC content averages between 12-15%. Its high is described as fast-acting, long-lasting, and relieves aches throughout the body as well as increasing appetite. It can create cerebral activity, enhancing social engagements and creativity for some. However, this strain has been widely known to be used medically since its birth in the 70s.

It gained recognition when it won placement in the CBD section of the 2011 High Times Medical Cannabis Cup in San Francisco, California.

If you’ve limited growing space, Alaskan Thunder Fuck is a good strain to grow since its mature plants are on the small side comparatively.

The amusingly named cannabis strain named Alaskan Thunder Fuck (aka Matanuska Thunder Fuck) is a sativa whose fragrance is diesel-like with a chocolate undertone. Some have reviewed this strain to have a pungent spicy, floral scent with a citrusy undertone. When harvest-ready its leaves are large… ]]>

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sativa makes you sleepy

Sativa vs. Indica: What to Expect Across Cannabis Types and Strains

Things to consider

The two main types of cannabis, sativa and indica, are used for a number of medicinal and recreational purposes.

Sativas are known for their “head high,” an invigorating, energizing effect that can help reduce anxiety or stress and increase creativity and focus.

Indicas are typically associated with full-body effects, such as increasing deep relaxation and reducing insomnia.

Although research examining these effects is limited, it appears these plants have more in common than previously thought.

In other words, the category, or type, of cannabis may not be the greatest indicator of the effects you’ll experience.

Here’s how to find the right plant for your needs, strains to consider, potential side effects, and more.

What should you look for to understand strain effects?

The often-applied rule of thumb is that sativas are more invigorating and energizing, while indicas are more relaxing and calming — but it isn’t really that simple.

Individual plants produce varying effects, even among the same type of cannabis. It all depends on the plant’s chemical composition and the growing technique used.

Instead of looking at the type alone — sativa or indica — look at the description the grower and dispensary provide.

Oftentimes, the plant types are broken down into specific strains, or breeds.

Strains are distinguished by their individual cannabinoid and terpene content. These compounds are what determine the strain’s overall effects.

Cannabinoids

Cannabis plants contain dozens of chemical compounds called cannabinoids.

These naturally occurring components are responsible for producing many of the effects — both negative and positive — of cannabis use.

Researchers still don’t understand what all of the cannabinoids do, but they have identified two main ones — tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) — as well as several less common compounds.

  • THC. THC is the main psychoactive compound in cannabis plants. It’s responsible for the “high” or state of euphoria associated with cannabis use. Levels of THC have been increasing as growers try to create hybrids with a greater concentration of the compound.
  • CBD. CBD is non-psychoactive. It doesn’t cause a “high.” However, it may produce many physical benefits, such as reducing pain and nausea, preventing seizures, and easing migraine.
  • CBN. Cannabinol (CBN) is used to ease symptoms and side effects of neurological conditions, including epilepsy, seizures, and uncontrollable muscle stiffness.
  • THCA. Tetrahydrocannabinol acid (THCA) is similar to THC, but it doesn’t cause any psychoactive effects. Its potential benefits include reducing inflammation from arthritis and autoimmune diseases. It may also help reduce symptoms of neurological conditions like Parkinson’s disease and ALS.
  • CBG. Cannabigerol (CBG) is thought to help reduce anxiety and symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and depression.

Terpenes

A great deal of attention is paid to the amount of THC and CBD in a given strain, but newer research suggests that terpenes may be just as impactful.

Terpenes are another naturally occurring compound in the cannabis plant.

The terpenes present directly affect the plant’s smell. They may also influence the effects produced by specific strains.

According to Leafly, common terpenes include:

  • Bisabolol. With notes of chamomile and tea tree oil, the terpene bisabolol is thought to reduce inflammation and irritation. It may also have microbial and pain-reducing effects.
  • Caryophyllene. The peppery, spicy molecule may reduce anxiety, ease symptoms of depression, and improve ulcers.
  • Linalool. Linalool is said to help improve relaxation and boost mood with its floral notes.
  • Myrcene. The most common terpene, this earthy, herbal molecule may help reduce anxiety and insomnia so you can sleep better.
  • Ocimene. This terpene produces notes of basil, mango, and parsley. Its primary effects may include easing congestion and warding off viruses and bacteria.
  • Pinene. As the name suggests, this terpene produces an intense pine aroma. It may help boost memory, reduce pain, and ease some of the not-so-pleasant symptoms of THC, such as nausea and coordination problems.
  • Terpinolene. Cannabis with this compound may smell like apples, cumin, and conifers. It may have sedative, antibacterial, and antifungal properties.
  • Limonene. Bright, zippy citrus notes come from this terpene. It’s said to improve mood and reduce stress.
  • Humulene. This terpene is deeply earthy and woody, like hops or cloves. Cannabis strains with this molecule may reduce inflammation.
  • Eucalyptol. With notes of eucalyptus and tea tree oil, this molecule is refreshing and invigorating. It may also reduce inflammation and fight bacteria.

Sativa in-depth

  • Origin:Cannabis sativa is found primarily in hot, dry climates with long sunny days. These include Africa, Central America, Southeast Asia, and western portions of Asia.
  • Plant description: Sativa plants are tall and thin with finger-like leaves. They can grow taller than 12 feet, and they take longer to mature than some other types of cannabis.
  • Typical CBD to THC ratio: Sativa often has lower doses of CBD and higher doses of THC.
  • Commonly associated effects of use: Sativa often produces a “mind high,” or an energizing, anxiety-reducing effect. If you use sativa-dominant strains, you may feel productive and creative, not relaxed and lethargic.
  • Daytime or nighttime use: Because of its stimulating impact, you can use sativa in the daytime.
  • Popular strains: Three popular sativa strains are Acapulco Gold, Panama Red, and Durban Poison.

Indica in-depth

  • Origin:Cannabis indica is native to Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, and Turkey. The plants have adapted to the often harsh, dry, and turbulent climate of the Hindu Kush mountains.
  • Plant description: Indica plants are short and stocky with bushy greenery and chunky leaves that grow wide and broad. They grow faster than sativa, and each plant produces more buds.
  • Typical CBD to THC ratio: Indica strains often have higher levels of CBD and less THC.
  • Commonly associated effects of use: Indica is sought after for its intensely relaxing effects. It may also reduce nausea and pain and increase appetite.
  • Daytime or nighttime use: Because of its deep relaxation effects, indica is better consumed at night.
  • Popular strains: Three popular indica strains are Hindu Kush, Afghan Kush, and Granddaddy Purple.

Hybrid in-depth

Each year, cannabis growers produce new and unique strains from different combinations of parent plants. These cannabis hybrids are often grown to target specific effects.

  • Origin: Hybrids are typically grown on farms or greenhouses from a combination of sativa and indica strains.
  • Plant description: The appearance of hybrid strains depends on the combination of the parent plants.
  • Typical CBD to THC ratio: Many hybrid cannabis plants are grown in order to increase the THC percentage, but each type has a unique ratio of the two cannabinoids.
  • Commonly associated effects of use: Farmers and producers select hybrids for their unique impacts. They can range from reducing anxiety and stress to easing symptoms of chemotherapy or radiation.
  • Daytime or nighttime use: This depends on the predominant effects of the hybrid.
  • Popular strains: Hybrids are typically classified as indica-dominant (or indica-dom), sativa-dominant (sativa-dom), or balanced. Popular hybrids include Pineapple Express, Trainwreck, and Blue Dream.

Ruderalis in-depth

A third type of cannabis, Cannabis ruderalis, also exists. However, it isn’t widely used because it usually doesn’t produce any potent effects.

  • Origin: Ruderalis plants adapt to extreme environments, such as Eastern Europe, Himalayan regions of India, Siberia, and Russia. These plants grow quickly, which is ideal for the cold, low-sunlight environments of these places.
  • Plant description: These small, bushy plants rarely grow taller than 12 inches, but they grow rapidly. One can go from seed to harvest in little more than a month.
  • Typical CBD to THC ratio: This strain typically has little THC and higher amounts of CBD, but it may not be enough to produce any effects.
  • Commonly associated effects of use: Because of its low potency, ruderalis isn’t routinely used for medicinal or recreational purposes.
  • Daytime or nighttime use: This cannabis plant produces very few effects, so it can be used at any time.
  • Popular strains: On its own, ruderalis isn’t a popular cannabis option. However, cannabis farmers may breed ruderalis with other cannabis types, including sativa and indica. The plant’s rapid growth cycle is a positive attribute for producers, so they may want to combine more potent strains with ruderalis strains to create a more desirable product.

Potential side effects and risks

Although cannabis use is often associated with potential benefits, it can also produce unwanted side effects.

  • dry mouth
  • dry eyes
  • dizziness
  • anxiety
  • paranoia
  • lethargy
  • increased heart rate
  • decreased blood pressure

Most of these effects are associated with THC, not CBD or other cannabinoids. However, any cannabis product can produce side effects.

The method of use may increase your risk for side effects, too.

For example, smoking or vaping cannabis can irritate your lungs and airways. This may lead to coughing and respiratory problems.

Oral cannabis preparations, such as gummies or cookies, are less likely to affect your overall respiratory health.

However, the effects are felt more slowly and typically aren’t as strong.

Sativa and indica are the two main types of cannabis plants. The often-applied rule of thumb is that sativas are more invigorating and energizing, while indicas are more relaxing and calming — but this is an immense oversimplification. Here's how to find the right plant for your needs, strains to consider, and more.

Drowsiness

Updated on January 25, 2019. Medical content reviewed by Dr. Joseph Rosado, MD, M.B.A, Chief Medical Officer

Why Does Marijuana Make You Tired

As a medical marijuana patient, you may deal with frequent drowsiness due to your medication. Or, perhaps you want to try cannabis medicine, but you worry it will make you too tired to function. Either way, you want to know everything you can about cannabis and tiredness so you can medicate yourself in the best way possible. While marijuana can cause drowsiness, there are of ways to manage it. We’ll give you the low-down.

About Medical Marijuana Side Effects

Just like any other medication, weed can cause unwanted side effects. But, due to its versatility, medical marijuana has some side effects that certain patients consider a benefit. For instance, some folks want marijuana to make them tired so they can get a good night’s rest. Other possibly beneficial side effects include increased appetite and reduced saliva production.

Other side effects generally don’t help patients, but they tend to be mild and easy to handle. These include giddiness, anxiety and memory issues.

Overall, the positive effects of medicinal cannabis are typically worth the potential side effects. Marijuana has low potential for addiction, many ingestion methods and the ability to tackle a lot of symptoms at once.

How Does Cannabis Make You Sleepy?

To understand how marijuana causes tiredness, we have to delve a bit into the chemistry behind it. Cannabis contains numerous components called cannabinoids. When we talk about cannabinoids, we usually look at the two most prevalent ones in the marijuana plant: tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD).

While THC causes the “high” we associate with cannabis, CBD does not. In large doses, THC can make you tired after you feel the initial high. It communicates with the receptors in your body and brain related to your sleep/wake cycle. As it interacts with those receptors, it causes a feeling of sleepiness.

Scientists also think a compound called myrcene contributes to weed’s ability to sedate you. Some studies suggest that myrcene has a sedative effect and relaxes the muscles. It also seems it can enhance the effects of THC, making its sedative effect stronger.

Which Kinds of Cannabis Medicine Can Make Me Tired?

Just about any kind of marijuana product can make you feel sleepy, but some are more likely to do so than others.

The biggest defining factor for sedation is the type of marijuana strain used in the product. Indica strains have a higher chance of making you drowsy than the other type of strain, sativa.

Also, medications that affect the entire body or brain tend to cause sleepiness more than other ones. These include edibles and patches.

Managing Marijuana-Related Drowsiness

If you don’t use marijuana medicine as a sleep aid, you have many options for managing the drowsiness. Patients who deal with sleepiness from weed medication usually don’t have to discontinue their treatment once they figure out how to handle it.

The best way to manage cannabis sedation is simply to pick a strain that doesn’t make you tired. As opposed to indica strains, sativa strains boost your energy levels. If you don’t want that extra lift, you can choose a hybrid strain that balances the effects of sativa and indica strains.

In the case that you must use a medication that causes sleepiness, you can try taking it before your bedtime. You can sleep off the drowsiness. If you can’t take your medication before bed, take the same precautions that you would with any drug that causes sleepiness. Don’t operate anything that can cause harm like a car or heavy machinery.

Marijuana-related drowsiness mostly only impacts your short-term ability to perform tasks. As long as you manage it effectively, you don’t have to worry about its impact after you finish taking cannabis medicine. Patients shouldn’t worry about this side-effect having a long-term effect on their life.

Learn About Cannabis’ Perks

As you can see, marijuana-related exhaustion is nothing to worry about. Check out the benefits of medical marijuana that make up for this side effect, and talk to a doctor who knows about cannabis for more information.

Learn why some cannabis users experience drowsiness as a side effect and how to combat side effects to get the most out of your cannabis. ]]>