CBD Oil For Depression


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Can cannabis and CBD oil help with depression? What does the research say and is it safe? Choose from our range of CBD Oil For Depression – Benefits of CBD products. Shop now and get Free UK Delivery on orders over £30+. Switch to our Vape Refills today! Cannabis (marijuana) can help treat depression. Dr James Connell explains traditional treatments and side effects and how cannabis and CBD oil can help.

Can Medical Marijuana and CBD Oil Help With Depression?

Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide, affecting 10-15% of adults globally. It is one of the leading risk factors for suicide. Researchers are increasingly exploring medical marijuana (also known as medical cannabis) as a potential treatment to help with depression due to the side effects caused from conventional medical treatment.

Quick Summary

  • Despite available conventional treatment for depression, efficacy is limited and side effects such as weight gain, sexual dysfunction, and others may cause more harm than benefit.
  • Medical marijuana may be a suitable treatment option when other treatments have not provided relief or are causing undesirable side effects.
  • A number of observational studies have found patients who use cannabis reported reduced depression compared to non-users however more research needs to be done to understand the connection.
  • Research finds that patients should start with a CBD formulation and then consider adding in THC if CBD alone is ineffective.
  • In Australia, medical marijuana (including CBD) is a scheduled medication and patients should discuss treatment with their doctor. If your doctor is not open to the conversation you may wish to speak with one of our medical marijuana doctors by booking in an initial consultation.

Role of Medical Marijuana in the Treatment of Depression

Mood and sleep disorders, such as depression, anxiety and insomnia are common indications for treatment with medicinal marijuana. 5 Doctors can prescribe medicinal marijuana for depression in Australia with approval from the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA). In fact, Anxiety is the number 2 indication for prescribing medical marijuana in Australia with over 51,000 SAS-B applications approved to date:

TGA Special Access Scheme Medical Cannabis Approvals by indication

Studies show that many patients who are prescribed traditional antidepressants expressed doubts on its efficacy and were worried about or had experienced unwanted side effects. 6

Side effects are common across antidepressants and may include dizziness, gastrointestinal complaints, dry mouth, sweating, emotional flatness, insomnia, drowsiness, tiredness and decreased libido. This can often lead to non-adherence to treatment. 7

Discontinuation of antidepressant treatment is often associated with withdrawal symptoms for most patients that ranges in severity and can last for several months. 8,9

Where Does Medical Marijuana Fit in?

Medical marijuana is currently not a first line treatment for depression. 9 Patients need to have tried at least one conventional treatment before being eligible. If you want to learn more about eligibility, you can take the free eligibility test available on our website.

Medical marijuana may be used independently of other medicines or as an adjunct therapy along with conventional medical treatment. It’s recommended to speak with your treating doctor when commencing therapy because medical marijuana is generally not a one size fits all approach and needs to be customized to the individual patient.

Your doctor may also recommend lifestyle modification to accompany treatment. These may include: 10

  • improving sleep hygiene
  • undertaking adequate physical activity or exercise
  • eating a healthy diet
  • minimising alcohol consumption
  • reducing stress
  • reviewing daily routines and social support.

What Are the Benefits of Medical Marijuana?

Medical marijuana is derived from the cannabis sativa plant, also known as the hemp or marijuana plant. 11 Cannabis products are generally separated into three categories based on the main active ingredient: 12

  • CBD (cannabidiol) dominant products
  • Balanced products that contain roughly equal amounts of THC and CBD.
  • THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) dominant products

THC and CBD are known as cannabinoids. These chemicals, found in the cannabis plant, act on cannabinoid receptors in the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in our body.

The highest number of cannabinoid receptors are found in our brain. Cannabinoids modulate how our brain cells behave by controlling the release of our body’s chemical messengers.

Although research around cannabis is limited, it appears to have some benefits for depression, especially for dealing with: 13

  • anxiety
  • cognitive impairment
  • discomfort before public speaking
  • conditions potentially related to depression such as chronic pain. 14

How Can Cannabis Help With Depression?

THC and Depression

THC directly stimulates your body’s cannabinoid receptors and when used correctly, can be a suitable treatment option for depression.

Although studies suggest that non-medicinal (or recreational) cannabis may be associated with increased risk of developing depressive disorder, 15 the effects of cannabis are dose dependent and they don’t work the same for everyone.

THC itself has been found to produce feelings of euphoria (happiness), 16 which is beneficial in depression.

CBD and Depression

Unlike THC, CBD does not cause a high that is generally associated with recreational cannabis use and may reduce the unwanted side effects of THC. 17

It also does not display any signals of abuse liability seen in frequent recreational cannabis use. 18

In addition to cannabinoid receptors, CBD can activate serotonin receptors. Low levels of brain serotonin, a neurotransmitter, is associated with depression and anxiety.

CBD may help the brain use serotonin more effectively in some people. 13

CBD has potential for therapeutic use in psychiatry. It has been shown to be effective at improving anxiety in the short-term 19,20 as well as following long-term treatment in patients with clinical anxiety. 21

The antidepressant effects of CBD has also been shown in pre-clinical trials, in both short-term treatment 22,23 and long-term treatment. 24

CBD has been shown to synergise with other medicines that act on serotonin receptors, including many common antidepressants. 25

This means that CBD can be effective both as a stand-alone depression treatment, or as a combination treatment with conventional antidepressants.

Other Cannabis Products for Depression

Terpenes are naturally occurring aromatic compounds found in many plants. They create the distinct smell of many plants, such as cannabis, pine, and lavender.

Cannabis plants contain high concentrations of terpenes. 26 Because terpenes produce strong smells, they form the basis of many essential oils and play a role in aromatherapy.

Inhaling these scents can affect a persons mood and stress levels.

While there are many different terpenes, research in mice has shown some are good for anxiety and depression:

  • Limonene is shown to reduce stress and anxiety, 27 as well as other therapeutic properties such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, antidiabetic, and anticancer. 28
  • Pinene is shown to reduce anxiety. 29
  • Linalool odour can induce an anxiety-reducing effect 30 and is shown to have antidepressant properties. 31
  • Myrcene is shown to have a sedative effect. 32

Evidence Snapshot: What Does the Research Say?


The number of studies on the antidepressant effects of cannabis is limited. Studies in mice have found that both THC and CBD had antidepressant effects. 22,33,34

A 2021 observational study found patients who use cannabis reported reduced depression compared to non-users. Cannabis users also reported superior sleep, pain, and quality of life. 12 This is consistent with improvements in both pain and quality of life seen with conventional depression treatment. 35,36

Patients who started cannabis treatment had a significant reduction in depressive symptoms, while those with continued cannabis treatment had a modest reduction. 12

THC-dominant products did not show much improvement in alleviating depression symptoms. However, CBD-dominant products showed significant improvement in alleviating depression symptoms. 12


There have been a handful of trials that examined the effectiveness of THC and CBD on anxiety. Most of these trials showed that they have found a positive effect on anxiety. 19-21,37,38


Some conventional depression options can impact sleep and keep you awake, such as SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) and SNRIs (serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors). 9

Many studies suggest that both THC and CBD have a positive effect in sleep by improving sleep quality, decreasing sleep disturbances, and decreasing the time it takes to fall asleep. 17,39

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Is Cannabis for Depression Safe?

Like all medicines, cannabis and antidepressants both have side effects. The side effects of cannabis are mild and well tolerated.

In general, the side effects of CBD products are less than those for THC products. Research shows CBD is safe and well-tolerated, 40 even at very high doses. 41

Table 3: Comparison of common side effects of CBD, THC and conventional antidepressants 9,42

CBD THC Conventional antidepressants
Diarrhoea Increased heart rate Weight gain
Tiredness Coordination problems Drowsiness
Vomiting Dry mouth Agitation
Drowsiness Memory loss Sexual dysfunction
Appetite changes Slower reaction times Withdrawal syndrome

Unlike conventional antidepressants, short-term use of cannabis does not cause withdrawal syndrome when stopped abruptly. 43

Conventional antidepressants require you to reduce the dose gradually before stopping to avoid withdrawal syndrome. In some cases, slowly reducing the dose is also needed when you change to another antidepressant. 9

How Is Cannabis Prescribed for Depression?

There are almost 400 cannabis products available in Australia. 44 Most medicinal cannabis products are unapproved, which means the TGA has not assessed them for safety, quality or effectiveness. Where appropriate, doctors can apply to the TGA for access and explain why medicinal cannabis may be appropriate to treat your depression. 45

There are three ways you can access medicinal cannabis for the treatment of depression:

  • Special Access Scheme (SAS)
  • Authorised Prescriber Scheme
  • Clinical trial

Special Access Scheme (SAS)

There is a common misconception that doctors can only prescribe medicinal cannabis as a last resort, after you exhaust all other available treatments. The SAS allows access to unapproved medicines such as cannabis if your doctor has considered other approved treatments, but not necessarily all of them. 45

Any doctor can apply to the TGA to prescribe medicinal cannabis for depression (except in Tasmania, where a specialist must apply). If your doctor is not familiar with the process, a cannabis clinic can help. If you would like to learn more, click here to book in with one of our medical cannabis doctors.

Authorised Prescriber Scheme

An authorised prescriber is a doctor who has applied to the TGA for authorisation to prescribe medicinal cannabis directly to specified patients under their immediate care. They do not need to apply to the TGA each time they prescribe medicinal cannabis. This can result in shorter wait times for accessing medicinal cannabis. 46

Clinical trials

Clinical trials may be available for different conditions. The trial sponsor needs to apply to the TGA to meet the required standards. If you meet the criteria, you may be able to access medicinal cannabis through the program, but there is no guarantee you can be prescribed medicinal cannabis once the program ends. 47

What Dose of Cannabis Do I Use for Depression?

Limited evidence exists for cannabis dosing in depression. Two clinical trials found prolonged treatment with CBD at daily doses of 200 mg significantly decreased depressive and psychotic symptoms in cannabis users. It also improved attentional switching, verbal learning, and memory. 48,49

Table 4: Main outcomes achieved from clinical trials of depressive disorders

The general rule for cannabis is to use the lowest effective dose to treat your symptoms (achieved by starting low and going slow).

Your doctor may titrate your dose (slowly increase) over time to find the most effective dose for you.

Your doctor may monitor your symptoms and adjust your dose as needed. Everyone responds to cannabis differently.

What Is Depression?

Depression isn’t just the feelings of sadness or low mood we experience from time to time when life gets hard. It can range from sadness that doesn’t go away, or losing interest or pleasure in things that you used to enjoy. Depression is a serious condition that can affect your physical and mental health. 1,2


Almost half (around 45 per cent) of the Australian population will experience a mental health condition in their lifetime. One million Australians live with depression, making it the second most common mental health condition after anxiety. 3

Every year around 65,000 people attempt to take their own life and more than 3,100 people die by suicide. 3

The University Of Queensland, Queensland Brain Institute

While the exact cause of depression isn’t known, there are several personal factors that can increase your risk of depression. These include: 2

  • family history
  • certain personality traits, such as low self-esteem, self-hate or sensitive to personal criticism
  • difficult social circumstances, such as bad childhood experiences, homelessness, unemployment or serious medical condition
  • drug and alcohol use.

Generally, depression does not stem from a single event, but from a combination of different factors.

If you feel that your negative thoughts, moods or feelings are consistently impacting your quality of life or relationships, it’s important to seek help. Cannabis may be a treatment option for depression when other treatments have failed or cause intolerable side effects.

Signs and Symptoms

If you feel sad, down, or miserable most of the time for 2 weeks or longer, it could be depression. The signs and symptoms below also indicate depression. It is important to remember that we all experience some of these symptoms at some point. It does not always mean you are depressed. If you are depressed, it does not neccessarily mean you will experience these symptoms. 1,2

Table 1: Signs and symptoms of depression 1,2

Behaviour Feelings Thoughts Physical
Not going out anymore Overwhelmed ‘I’m a failure’ Constant tiredness
Not getting work done Guilty ‘It’s my fault’ Sick and run down
Withdrawal from family and friends Irritable ‘People are better off without me’ Headaches and muscle pains
Relying on alcohol Frustrated ‘Life’s not worth living’ Churning gut
Not doing usual enjoyable activities Unhappy or sad ‘Nothing good ever happens to me’ Loss or change of appetite
Unable to concentrate Indecisive ‘I’m worthless’ Sleep problems

How Is Depression Diagnosed?

If your mental health, or the mental health about someone you care about concerns you, it is important to speak to a health professional. To diagnose depression, your GP may conduct a mental health assessment.

This involves a discussion or answering a questionnaire, as well as a physical examination. This will help your doctor differentiate between a mental and physical health problem. 4

Although there is a lot of overlap with anxiety disorders, the conditions are different. However, just because you are experiencing one doesn’t mean you don’t have the other.

If you would like to learn more about cannabis and anxiety, you can read our Highs and Lows: CBD Oil for Anxiety Disorders article.

When Should I Seek Help?

If you or someone you care about is experiencing symptoms of depression, it is best to seek help early and your GP is a good place to start. There is no need to struggle on your own. Seek help if: 4

  • you are feeling sad, miserable or overwhelmed most of the time
  • you are experiencing these symptoms for 2 weeks or more
  • your negative thoughts, mood or feelings affect how you cope at home, school, or work.

If you are not ready to speak with a doctor, contacting a support service may help.

Table 2: Helplines for mental health support services

Helpline Phone Service
Suicide Call Back Service 1300 659 467 24/7 counselling to people affected by suicide
MensLine Australia 1300 78 99 78 24/7 counselling for men
Lifeline 13 11 14 24/7 crisis support and suicide prevention services
Kids Help Line 1800 55 1800 24/7 counselling for young people aged 5–25 years
Translating & Interpreting Service 131 450 24/7 assistance if English is not your first language

When is Medical Cannabis Prescribed for Depression?

There is no single effective treatment for depression, and it’s different for everyone. It is important to find the right treatment for you and the right health professional for your needs.

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Treatment options for depression is divided into: 1

  • psychological treatment (also known as talking therapies), such as cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy (IPT)
  • medical treatment, such as antidepressants
  • complementary treatment, such as cannabis.

What Should Patients and Caregivers Know?

  • Before starting any medicine, seek advice from your doctor or pharmacist about how much to take, how to take it and side effects to look out for.
  • Do not drive or operate machinery while being treated with THC. A urine test can detect THC many days after the last dose. 17
  • There is lack of evidence on the most effective dose for depression. Start low and go slow until the desired effect is achieved.

What Are the Next Steps?

In most states in Australia, most GPs and specialists can prescribe medical cannabis including CBD oil. However, they will need to apply under the special access scheme.

If your doctor is unwilling to apply on your behalf or uncomfortable prescribing medical cannabis, they can refer you to our clinic. We do virtual consultations nationwide and in-person at our flagship clinic in Sydney.

Click here for a quick online eligibility test to see if you qualify.

You can also call us at (02) 9098 9128 or email us at [email protected] and we can advise if medical cannabis could be an option for your condition.


Depression and anxiety are two of the most common mental issues that most of us will face, and left untreated can have a huge impact on our lives.

With a growing awareness over the last 30 years on the importance of mental health, and an increasing prevalence of anxiety disorders, it is becoming ever more important to find ways of improving our mental health.

Depression can be caused by a number of things, from a stressful or traumatic life event, to abnormal neurotransmitter activity. In the case of abnormal neurotransmitter activity, prescription medications can be used to adjust the balance in the brain, but no prescription medication can rectify a traumatic life event.

Whatever the cause, there is a growing body of evidence for the use of CBD products in a number of medical settings, including treating anxiety.


Cannabidiol CBD is one of many chemicals found in the cannabis plant, which is why it is known as a ‘cannabinoid’. CBD Oils can be made from one of three specific types of CBD:

  • CBD Isolate – this is just cannabidiol without any other compounds.
  • Broad Spectrum CBD – this is CBD plus the flavonoids and terpenes found in the cannabis plant.
  • Full Spectrum CBD – this is CBD plus the flavonoids and terpenes found in the cannabis plant and the other main cannabinoid, tetrahydrocannabinol- or ‘THC’ for short.

In the cannabis plant, the levels of CBD and levels of THC are inversely proportional – this means that cannabis plants with high levels of THC naturally have low levels of CBD. Plants with higher levels of CBD naturally have lower levels of THC, and if the level of THC is below 0.3%, then the plant is classified as a hemp plant.

This is why you will see many CBD products are ‘hemp derived’ – the cannabis plants harvested to extract the CBD have levels lower than 0.3% THC, and are therefore hemp plants!

Each type of CBD product includes different amounts of the other chemicals found in the hemp plant, with CBD isolate being the only one that doesn’t include any extras from the plant – literally just the CBD.

Broad spectrum CBD contains these extras found in the plant to benefit from the entourage effect. This is the observed action of the other chemicals in the plant working in synergy with the CBD to improve its effect. The only thing it doesn’t include is the THC – therefore there is no risk of any intoxication.

Full spectrum CBD is the only form that includes that last cannabinoid – THC – in the product. The levels of THC should be too low to cause intoxication, but there have been instances of Full Spectrum CBD products containing higher levels of THC than stated on the packaging, causing them to be removed from sale in the UK.


The health benefits of CBD oils are wide ranging because it acts on the human ‘endocannabinoid system’ – so called because it uses cannabinoid-like chemicals – which plays a huge role in how our body communicates with the variety of systems found in us: from the immune system to the nervous system.

The role of the endocannabinoid system appears to be connected to the regulation of our functions to ‘eat, sleep, relax, forget and protect’ – all pretty essential functions, I’m sure you’d agree!

While more studies are needed to confirm the mechanisms at work, the evidence so far indicates that the presence of CBD could improve many of the functions related to the endocannabinoid system.


Using CBD for depression could well reap beneficial results. As for why, there are a few proposed mechanisms, and it could be that one main mechanism is doing the most of the work, or it could be the combination of mechanisms working together produce the effect that some users see when they take CBD.

What causes depression?

As previously mentioned, there isn’t necessarily a single cause of depression. It is thought low levels of neurotransmitters could be the culprit; it could be down to disrupted communication between parts of the brain responsible for mood, like the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. It could also be the loss of a loved one, or experiencing a traumatic event.

This wide range of causes can make tackling the root of the problem more challenging, and in some cases, impossible. That’s where we need all the help we can get to improve our quality of life, with a view to getting out of depression, if possible.

Why is CBD oil recommended for depression?

Using CBD to try and tackle depression could work for a number of reasons. There is a lot of anecdotal evidence; stories from CBD users who have seen improvements in their depression are a powerful recommendation, but that doesn’t guarantee every individual will see improvements from using CBD.

How does CBD oil help depression?

The presence of CBD reduces the breakdown of an endocannabinoid known as ‘anandamide’ – it is nicknamed the bliss chemical and is associated with feelings of joy and happiness. By reducing the breakdown of anandamide, more of it will be present, potentially resulting in improved mood.

Another mechanism may be low levels of neurotransmitters causing an impaired communication between the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. One study found that stimulating the endocannabinoid system using CBD regulates activity in areas related to emotional processing.

A separate proposed method by which CBD could help sufferers of depression and relieve symptoms of anxiety is the regulation of a neurotransmitter known as GABA.

This neurotransmitter encourages the slowing down or stopping of neurons firing, and anxiety and stress can cause levels of GABA to decrease, resulting in over-firing neurons. It is thought that CBD can improve levels of GABA, resulting in a return to normal neuron function.

GABA is tied in with anxiety and panic attacks too, with increased GABA function resulting in reduced anxiety. This illustrates another function of CBD that could be beneficial to sufferers of anxiety and panic attacks.

How to use CBD oil for depression?

When it comes to dosing CBD for depression, or any other reason, you should start on a low dose and increase it if necessary. This means, for example, taking three drops of low strength CBD oral drops as a single dose, twice per day. This will give you a dose of 7.5mg of CBD per session, or a daily dose of 15mg.

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The important thing to keep in mind when you buy CBD for depression is that it isn’t applied to the skin – this means no topical creams or balms – simply because the CBD doesn’t make it into the bloodstream this way. Using edible CBD, CBD oral drops or CBD vape liquid will get the CBD into the blood, and therefore to the brain.

The matter of which type of CBD to go for to see the most benefits is another good question. Full spectrum CBD will see the entourage effect taking place, but if the source is untrustworthy, you could end up ingesting more THC than you want because they haven’t accurately labelled the product.

Why is this a bad thing? Well for most people this is unlikely to be too much of an issue – but for people competing in sports at a high level, even low levels of THC could show up on a drug test, potentially leading to disqualification from competition.

CBD Isolate is a safe bet, in comparison, but doesn’t benefit from the other compounds in the cannabis plant, so no entourage effect is present in CBD isolate products. Therefore, the middle ground that benefits from the entourage effect without risk of exposure to THC are broad spectrum CBD products!


According to the World Health Organization, CBD exhibits no abuse potential and does not appear to cause harm in the long term. This is exemplified by the CBD medication Epidiolex, which is administered to children in the hundreds of micrograms per dose to treat rare forms of epilepsy.

That doesn’t mean you should start giving yourself a dose of that size – you are more likely to experience side effects at higher doses, and small doses are sufficient for many people to start seeing improvements – dosing more that you need is just going to be an expensive waste of your CBD, and could result in feeling a bit off kilter!


In short – yes, CBD is legal in the UK. For more information on the legality of CBD, check out our blog article explaining the legal state of CBD in the UK.


If you’ve read this far, then there’s a good chance that you are considering CBD oil for anxiety and/or depression, either for yourself or someone you know. Before making the leap, there are several things to consider.

CBD has the ability to impact how the liver processes medications, so if you are currently using a prescribed medication you should consult your doctor before taking CBD to avoid negative drug interactions.

Make sure you choose the correct type of CBD for your needs, and avoid products with any amount of THC if you are subject to drug testing. Remember – if you want the maximum benefit from CBD without any THC, it’s the broad spectrum CBD products you want!

When you start on CBD, make sure to start on a low strength product, or in the case of edibles, keep your consumption low. Higher doses of CBD are more likely to lead to side effects, and these can include drowsiness, fatigue, dry mouth, diarrhoea and reduced appetite.

Starting on a low dose means you can gradually increase the intake of CBD until you see an effect, helping you work out your very own effective dose!

Finally, buying from a reputable, trusted source is important for being able to trust the contents on the product packaging. One particular brand was taken off the shelves because the level of THC was far above the legal level, as well as the level stated on the packaging.

At SMOKO, you can see the certificates from the third party testing for our CBD products online, so you know you can buy SMOKO CBD products with absolute confidence!


There is still much to be learned from studying the interactions of CBD in the body, and while much of the evidence needs to be corroborated in further studies, the outlook is very promising for the future of CBD in the use of a number of ailments.

If you are considering using CBD to help with depression, anxiety, or any number of other issues, then check out the SMOKO CBD range for broad spectrum CBD products that you can trust.

Made here, in the UK, from CBD cryogenically extracted from responsibly farmed, organically grown cannabis sativa L plants in Oregon, USA – the range is vegan friendly and gluten free, so take advantage of our limited time offer and see if CBD can help you – at a great price!

Can Cannabis Treat Depression? Dr Jim Explains.

1 in 16 Australians suffer from depression. While there are a number of treatments for depression, medical cannabis is becoming more popular. In this article, Dr Jim explains traditional treatments and side effects and how cannabis can help treat depression in some patients.

Dr James Connell
Tom Brown
  1. Cannabis can be prescribed to help treat depression in Australia.
  2. CBD or cannabidiol can be used to treat depression and has limited side effects.
  3. THC can also be used to treat depression but for some people, it may make their depression worse.
  4. While cannabis is often well tolerated, there can be adverse side effects for some patients.

In this video Dr Jim explains traditional depression treatments and side effects, and how medical cannabis is being used to treat depression in Australia.

Cannabis and CBD oil for depression

While feeling anxious, sluggish and in a low mood or state at times is normal, depression can be a serious medical condition. According to Beyond Blue, 1 in 16 Australians are currently experiencing depression. There are a wide range of treatments for depression. An increasing number of doctors and individuals are using cannabis to treat depression.

In this article Dr Jim will help answer the question, “Can cannabis (marijuana) be used to treat depression?” It’s important to note that while depression and anxiety treatments are similar, the conditions can be mutually exclusive. Just because you are experiencing one does not mean you have the other. If you’d like to learn about cannabis and anxiety, you can read our cannabis for anxiety article.

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What are the signs of depression?

Depression can be debilitating depending on the severity of the condition. There are a number of types and subcategories of depression. There are major depressive disorders. People also experience dysphonia, which is chronic low mood. There can be situational stressors which can lead to a depressive disorder, for example, postnatal depression.

However, all of these conditions have similar features. The main features for depression include pervasive low mood and anhedonia, which is the lack of ability to enjoy previously pleasurable or enjoyable experiences.

Depression can also cause changes in sleep. This can present as difficulty getting to sleep or as hyper-somnolence, wanting to sleep all of the time. A change in appetite can also be a symptom of depression. Some individuals put on weight and other people will have no appetite whatsoever.

Finally, changes in self worth including feelings of worthlessness and guilt or thoughts of death and dying or increased suicidal ideation. All of these feelings can lead to fatigue and mental and physical slowing, so that everything becomes an effort in someone’s life as well.

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