Does CBD Oil Raise Your Heart Rate

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Marijuana is legal for medical use in more than half of the U.S. states. Although the cannabis plant has been used for thousands of years, reliable scientific research on its medical benefits and potential risks has lagged behind. Studies showed that CBD’s purported antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and pain-relieving effects may help alleviate symptoms of cardiovascular conditions. Does CBD Affect Heart Rate? We Review the Science and Conduct Our Own Experiments to Find Out It’s well known that THC increases heart rate and blood pressure, and that this is likely related to

Marijuana and heart health: What you need to know

Access to marijuana is growing, but marijuana benefits and its risks have not been carefully studied.

In many states in this country, you can legally use marijuana. Smoking is the fastest way to feel the effects of marijuana, which is derived from the Cannabis sativa plant. Yet marijuana smoke contains many of the same toxins, irritants, and carcinogens found in cigarette smoke — a known contributor to heart disease as well as cancer.

Marijuana cultivation and use dates back some 6,000 years. However, the cardiovascular and other health effects of cannabis aren’t well studied. That’s partly because under federal law, cannabis is a Schedule I substance, meaning it has “no currently accepted medical use and a high potential for abuse.” That designation places numerous restrictions on researchers, making it difficult to carry out rigorous research on marijuana.

As a result, everything we’re told about what marijuana does or doesn’t do should be viewed with a certain amount of caution. This holds equally true for the risks as well as the benefits.

Pot and pain

Some of the evidence supporting the medical use of marijuana is marijuana’s benefits for managing chronic pain. Cannabinoid compounds (see “Cannabis 101”) interact with receptors in nerve cells to slow down pain impulses and ease discomfort. Cannabinoids also have been shown to be effective in quelling nausea and vomiting. In addition, marijuana is a powerful appetite inducer. The combination of these attributes makes marijuana a therapeutic option for people coping with the side effects of chemotherapy and others who have unintended weight loss. However, in conditions where gaining extra weight might exacerbate existing health problems, such as diabetes, appetite stimulation would be counterproductive.

Cardiovascular effects

One of the few things scientists know for sure about marijuana and cardiovascular health is that people with established heart disease who are under stress develop chest pain more quickly if they have been smoking marijuana than they would have otherwise. This is because of complex effects cannabinoids have on the cardiovascular system, including raising resting heart rate, dilating blood vessels, and making the heart pump harder. Research suggests that the risk of heart attack is several times higher in the hour after smoking marijuana than it would be normally.

While this does not pose a significant threat to people who have minimal cardiovascular risk, it should be a red flag for anyone with a history of heart disease. Although the evidence is weaker, there are also links to a higher risk of atrial fibrillation or ischemic stroke immediately following marijuana use. Consistent with these links, studies also suggest that marijuana smoking may increase the long-term death rate among heart attack survivors.

Questions remain on marijuana’s benefits and risks

Most of the evidence linking marijuana to heart attack and stroke is based on reports from people who smoked it. So, it’s hard to separate the effects of cannabinoid compounds on the cardiovascular system from the hazards posed by the irritants and carcinogens contained in the smoke. Because cannabis smoke is known to cause airway inflammation, wheezing, and chest tightness, people with lung diseases should not smoke it. People with mental health disorders or at risk of addiction should carefully consider the potential harms prior to using marijuana.

Cannabis 101

The cannabis plant contains more than 100 unique chemical components classified as cannabinoids. These are the active ingredients that bind to specific receptors in the brain and other parts of the body. The two most prevalent types are tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is primarily responsible for the mind-altering properties sought out by recreational users, and cannabidiol (CBD), which has no psychoactive effect.

The magnitude of marijuana’s psychoactive effect depends on the THC level in the particular strain of plant, which parts of the plant are used, and the route through which the drug enters the body. Legalization in many states has led to the breeding of strains that are three to seven times more potent than those available three decades ago.

The impact of smoked or inhaled marijuana is generally felt within a few minutes and lasts two to four hours. Marijuana ingested in food or beverages kicks in more slowly and lasts longer.

CBD and Heart Rate – August 2022

Studies show that CBD may help improve heart health by regulating heart rate. Heart rate is managed by suppressing heart arrhythmia caused by insufficient blood supply to the heart (5) .

Heart arrhythmia (heart rhythm problems) involves irregular heartbeats resulting from malfunctioning electrical signals (6) . In this case, the heart may be beating irregularly, too fast, or too slow.

Studies demonstrated how CBD may help improve heart health through its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties (7) .

However, it is unclear whether CBD consistently increases or decreases heart rates in particular situations. Further research is needed for the results to be conclusive.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a term generally used for conditions affecting the heart or the blood vessels. Heart diseases include heart infection, coronary artery disease (CAD), irregular function, congenital heart defects, and arrhythmias (8) .

Arrhythmias can cause tachycardia, in which the heart rate goes over 100 beats per minute (9) . The standard range for an adult’s resting heart rate is 60 to 100 beats pe r minute (10) .

The following can lead to a fast heart rate:

  • High or low blood pressure
  • Excessive amounts of alcohol or caffeinated beverages
  • High cholesterol levels
  • Stimulant drugs (cocaine or methamphetamine)
  • Smoking
  • Imbalance of electrolytes
  • Medication side effects

Studies show that CBD may help suppress ischemia-induced cardiac arrhythmias (11) .

Ischemia occurs when the blood flow is restricted in the body (12) . Cardiac ischemia is the decreased blood flow and oxygen to the heart muscle.

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CBD’s anti-apoptotic (preventing cell death), anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties may help with myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (13) .

Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury caused by tissue damage is the leading cause of death in patients with cardiovascular disease (14) .

The British Journal of Pharmacology published a study suggesting CBD may help suppress irregular heartbeat caused by ischemia-induced heart arrhythmias (15) .

Another study on rats found that CBD may help stabilize irregular heartbeats (16) . This result among animal studies was due to the effects of CBD in the bloodstream.

Results of studies conducted on animals may be useful in further human studies on CBD use for heart rate.

How CBD Works to Help With Heart Disease Symptoms

After entering the body, CBD interacts with its endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS helps maintain balance in the body’s functions, including ones in the immune, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems (17) .

Endocannabinoids bind with cannabinoid receptors throughout the human body and send signals for particular actions to occur.

CBD is a phytocannabinoid (plant-based cannabinoid) that binds with receptors after the body receives the chemical compound.

Studies suggest CBD has antioxidant, inflammatory, and analgesic properties (18) that may help reduce the symptoms of heart conditions (19) .

The Effects of CBD on Heart Rate

A 2017 study led by Hermant Goval noted the presence of endocannabinoids in heart tissues (20) . The ECS may also be connected to heart rate regulation (21) .

CBD may thus help normalize the heart rate through its interaction with the ECS.

CBD vs. Stressful and Non-Stressful Conditions

A 2009 study showed that CBD may help lower the blood pressure of rats under stress (21) .

The study’s animal subjects underwent stressful conditions, including increases in heart rate and blood pressure. Both factors decreased after the animals received a single dose of CBD (22) .

Another study included a clinical trial published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation that showed CBD may help reduce blood pressure in healthy men (23) . However, the subjects’ heart rates increased compared to the placebo group.

A 2011 study provided participants a large dose of CBD or a placebo before a public-speaking event (24) . The researchers reported that the CBD group experienced lower heart rate, blood pressure, and anxiety levels.

The mixed results from CBD used in stressful and non-stressful situations may be related to the autonomic arousal or “fight or flight” response. Research shows that CBD may function as an anxiety reliever (25) .

However, researchers disagree on whether the beneficial effects of cannabidiol include lower heart rates during non-stressful conditions. More research is necessitated to determine whether CBD use in humans can lead to similar results.

CBD and THC: Different Cannabinoids with Different Effects

CBD and THC are both derivatives of cannabis plants. However, the two cannabinoids may produce opposite effects in terms of acute cardiovascular function.

CBD is a non-psychoactive component abundant in hemp and thus does not produce mind-altering effects like tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (26) .

Studies indicate CBD can lower heart rate (27) . Meanwhile, studies like a randomized crossover study show that THC may increase heart rate and blood pressure (28) .

The differing effects of THC and CBD on the central nervous system (CNS) are connected to their differing properties.

High-THC cannabis use may be connected to psychosis, according to a 2014 study on the effects of cannabis published in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry (29) .

While the psychosis symptoms of marijuana use include anxiety, researchers have examined CBD’s possible method of reducing the symptoms of anxiety disorders (30) .

CBD may also provide therapeutic benefits when combined with THC. A 2019 study in the Journal of Neuroscience noted that CBD seemed to block THC’s psychiatric side effects (31) .

The CBD Heart Rate Experiment

When experimenting on CBD’s effects on subjects’ heart rates, various types of heart rates are measured. The following informal experiments examine the effects of CBD products in different conditions.

Heart rates increase or decrease in particular situations, such as after exercise, and decrease in other situations, such as resting (32) .

Due to heart rate fluctuations, it is advisable to conduct the tests over multiple days and calculate the average.

Test 1: Resting Heart Rate

This test is the simplest one conducted. It involves measuring a subject’s resting heart rate. After the subject takes a dose of CBD oil, their heart rate is compared with the original measurements.

Test 2: Heart Rate While Exercising

This type of heart rate measurement requires a subject to measure heart rates after physical exercises, such as walking on a treadmill.

The heart rate is measured after a workout session. It is measured again after taking CBD and repeating the exercise session.

Test 3: Heart Rate After Sauna

Sauna baths may cause high blood pressure and increase heart rate (33) . This test examines whether CBD causes the heart rate to return to normal more expediently following a sauna session.

Does CBD Interact with Heart Medications?

CBD is generally safe. However, the compound may cause side effects, such as nausea, drowsiness, diarrhea, and dry mouth (34) .

Combining CBD with medications having similar side effects may increase the risk of unwanted symptoms or toxicity.

Potential drug interactions with CBD include warfarin, a blood thinner, and amiodarone, a heart rhythm medication (35) .

Meanwhile, taking CBD with certain heartburn drugs (such as Prilosec) may increase the risk of diarrhea.

Individuals taking prescription medication for a heart condition should consult their doctor before taking CBD.

Heart disease risks include heart attacks, heart failure, stroke, cardiac arrest, and aneurysm (36) . Treatments include prescription medicines and surgery.

Pharmaceuticals available for treating heart disease include angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, diuretics (water pills), and channel blockers (37) .

A 2013 study examined the use of prescription medicines for the long-term treatment of CAD (38) .

The pharmaceuticals demonstrated positive effects, lowering the risk of complications and r elieving cardiomyopathy symptoms (39) . Cardiomyopathy results when the heart cannot efficiently pump blood to the body.

The same study also showed that various CAD medications may have risk factors and produce side effects, including easy bruising, dizziness, and exhaustion (40) .

Individuals should consult with their physicians before using CBD products for heart conditions.

How to Use CBD Oil for Heart Rate

CBD forms include oils, tinctures, capsules, creams, and gummies. Taking CBD under the tongue sublingually makes it easy to ingest it (41) .

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Vaping offers faster bioavailability than other CBD forms such as topicals and edibles (42) . Bioavailability involves the rate and extent to which an active drug ingredient is absorbed and becomes available ( 43) .

A single dose of cannabidiol through vaping may pose risks comparable to smoking (44) .

Categories of the best CBD products include:

CBD Isolates : A form of pure CBD

Full-Spectrum CBD : Multiple cannabis plant extracts and up to 0.3% of THC.

Broad-Spectrum CBD : A wide range of natural chemical compounds from the cannabis plant but usually no THC.

Features to consider when selecting CBD products consider locally-grown hemp, non-genetically modified organisms (GMO), and third-party lab testing.

The USA’s Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate over-the-counter (OTC) CBD.

Generally, for heart rate issues, oral CBD products are generally practical to use. Topical products including creams, and balms, and salves focus more on skin conditions.

Meanwhile, CBD consumers are advised to use CBD vapes with caution. Vaping may pose risks to cardiovascular health ( 45) .

1. Does CBD increase heart rate?

A 2013 study review showed mixed results regarding CBD’s impact on humans’ and animals’ heart rates (46) .

2. Which CBD products has the FDA approved?

The FDA has officially approved the drug Epidiolex, which contains a purified form of CBD for treating seizures among people with tuberous sclerosis complex (47) . Seizures can result from health conditions such as epilepsy.

Conclusion

The heart is among the vital organs of the cardiovascular system. Impaired cardiovascular health may affect the entire body.

Other medical conditions associated with heart diseases include:

  • Hypertension (48)
  • Isolated systolic blood pressure (49)
  • Drastically lower blood pressure (50)
  • Heart palpitations (51)
  • Blocked blood vessels (52)

Heart disease is the United State’s leading cause of death (53) and may lead to heart attacks or strokes.

The health benefits of CBD are noted in several studies. Links to the studies are identified using a digital object identifier (DOI), making them accessible to readers on the internet.

Still, it is ideal to consult with a cardiologist before using any CBD product.

Does CBD Affect Heart Rate? We Review the Science and Conduct Our Own Experiments to Find Out

It’s well known that THC increases heart rate and blood pressure, and that this is likely related to THC’s anxiety and psychosis-inducing effect. But what about CBD, THC’s cannabinoid cousin? CBD has an opposite effect on anxiety, psychosis, and brain function as THC: it reduces anxiety, strengthens brain connections, and reduces symptoms of psychosis.

Could it reduce heart rate as well?

There are several studies that explore CBD’s effect on heart rate, and we go over them thoroughly in this article. But we decided that wasn’t enough, and we put the science to the test on our favorite guinea pigs (us).

I tested CBD’s effect on my resting heart rate, my heart rate after cardio, and my heart rate after a (particularly extreme) sauna session. Keep reading to find out the results.

Does CBD affect heart rate?

Yes, CBD may reduce heart rate under stressful conditions, but the evidence is mixed on whether CBD has any effect on heart rate in non-stressful conditions.

What the science says

Here’s a review of all the major studies conducted on CBD and heart rate:

  • In one 2009 study published in the British Journal of Pharmacology , rats were subjected to stressful conditions that increased their blood pressure and heart rate. After being given a dose of CBD, their heart rate and blood pressure decreased.
  • In this 2017 randomized, double-blind, placed controlled clinical trial published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation ,CBD was found to reduce blood pressure in healthy male participants but increase heart rate compared to the placebo group.
  • In a 2011 study published in the Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology , participants were given either a large dose of CBD prior to a public speaking event or a placebo. The researchers reported lower blood pressure, heart rate, and anxiety levels for the CBD group.

So, the two studies which applied CBD in stressful conditions (one in rats and one in humans) both found reduced blood pressure and heart rate, but the study which applied CBD in non-stressful situations found only a reduction in blood pressure and an increase in heart rate.

Does CBD only affect heart rate in stressful conditions?

This suggests that CBD may only reduce heart rate if heart rate has otherwise been increased by stressful conditions. This makes sense because increased heart rate and blood pressure is a result of autonomic arousal, aka the “fight or flight” response that is activated upon stress. Autonomic arousal is also the mechanism behind anxiety and panic attacks, and CBD is well-known as an effective anxiety reliever: one 2019 study in The Permanente Journa l and another in the Journal of Neurotherapeutics both found that CBD reduced anxiety.

So, CBD anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) effects are likely related to its potential ability to reduce heart rate.

CBD and THC: two very different cannabinoids

It’s important to note that, while CBD and THC are both derivatives of cannabis, when it comes to acute cardiovascular function they appear to have opposite effects: THC increases autonomic arousal, whereas CBD reduces it; CBD may reduce heart rate, but THC is known to increase heart rate.

This key difference in the two cannabinoids — in how they affect the nervous system — explains why one, THC, is associated with increased anxiety and psychosis, while the other, CBD, is associated with the opposite.

The difference also provides further reason to believe that CBD and THC may function best in combination, especially given the substantial evidence indicating that CBD may reduce negative side-effects of THC (including on brain function). For instance, in this September 2019 study just conducted by the University of Western Ontario , they found that CBD blocked the psychiatric side-effects of THC. PhD candidate and head researcher Roger Hudson explained that “ CBD was also able to reverse the anxiety-like behaviour and addictive-like behaviour caused by the THC.”

What about CBD’s overall effect on the cardiovascular system?

As with CBD’s effect on heart rate, this is a very open question. Bottom line is: we don’t know, because little research has been done on CBD’s effect on the cardiovascular system.

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Large studies on marijuana use and cardiovascular function have found little definitive evidence of a positive or negative effect, and since CBD has much less of an impact on the cardiovascular system than THC it’s reasonable to assume that CBD has minimal impact on cardiovascular health overall.

But there’s more to it than that, and two recent studies have indicated that CBD may in fact have a positive effect on cardiovascular health.

Two studies: CBD reduces heart inflammation

In this 2013 review of several studies published in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology , CBD was found to positively influence white blood cell survival and migration related to heart disease. The researchers concluded that “ A common theme throughout these studies is the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect of CBD. In the heart, in vivo CBD treatment protects against ischaemia-reperfusion damage and against cardiomyopathy associated with diabetes.”

The second 2016 study published in the Journal of Molecular Medicine CBD reduced markers of inflammation in individuals with autoimmune myocarditis, a condition which causes inflammation of the heart.

So, while it’s far too early to determine how exactly CBD influences cardiovascular function, there is promising evidence that CBD’s known anti-inflammatory properties apply to the heart as well, and that CBD can potentially reduce heart-related inflammation.

The CBD heart rate experiment

So, there’s the hard science on how CBD affects heart rate. Now, for the fun part: I put it to the test. To measure my heart rate I used a FitBit, and for each test I took 40 mg of NuLeaf Naturals organic full-spectrum CBD oil.

Given that the science indicates different results in different conditions, we tested CBD’s effect on my heart rate in three different conditions: resting, during exercise, and after a sauna session.

Test 1: Resting heart rate

This is the simplest test we conducted: each day over a period of three days, at the same time (2:00 PM) each day, we measured my heart rate without CBD, and then I took a 40mg dose of NuLeaf Naturals organic full-spectrum CBD oil, we waited 30 minutes, and we measured my heart rate again. We then took the average of all three measurements. Here are the results:

Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Average
Without CBD 67 70 68 68.3
With CBD 65 70 65 66.67

As you can see, I did experience a modest reduction in heart rate after taking the CBD, though the reduction wasn’t consistent and it wasn’t outside the normal variation in my heart rate.

Test 2: Heart rate while exercising

For this test, I ran for 20 minutes on a treadmill at a constant rate (5mph), got off the treadmill and measured my heart rate, then took a dose of CBD, waited 30 minutes, got back on the treadmill at the same rate for the same time (20 mins) and measured my heart rate again. As with the first test, we did this three times over three days and took the average of all three.

Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Average
Without CBD 126 140 134 133.33
With CBD 122 138 130 130

Again, we found a relatively small reduction in heart rate, though this reduction was consistent across all three days.

Test 3: Heart rate after sauna

This test was a bit more complicated. I’m a regular sauna user, and fewer things jack your heart rate up more than the sauna. I was curious if CBD would have any effect on how quickly my heart rate returned to normal after a sauna session.

Here’s the test: I did a 20 minute sauna session at 200 degrees (brutal) without CBD then measured my heart rate immediately after getting out, and then again every three minutes to determine how long it returned to normal. The next day I repeated the same process but with CBD.

Immediately after sauna 3 minutes after sauna 6 minutes after 9 minutes after 12 minutes after
Without CBD 158 124 75 68 68
With CBD 162 122 75 66 66

The results for this one are interesting: my heart rate was higher immediately after getting out with CBD, but fell faster with the CBD and reached a lower point 9 minutes after.

Conclusion

None of the results of my experiments were SUPER eye-catching, but as you can see from the charts I did experience a modest but noticeable reduction in heart rate after taking CBD across all three experiments. However, these tests also were all under non-stressful conditions: even the ones involving cardio and sauna ultimately aren’t a great test of the “fight or flight” response. The increased heart rate and blood pressure during physical activity is a physical adaptation that’s different from the increase you’d see with anxiety.

A better test, and one that I will try to conjure up over the next few weeks, is testing my heart rate under anxiety-inducing conditions, and then testing with CBD under the same conditions to see if there’s any difference. Stay tuned, folks!

FAQ on CBD and Heart Rate

Does CBD affect heart rate medication?

Actually, CBD is metabolized by the same liver enzymes as 60% of medications on the market, so it can block these enzymes and allow more of the medication into your system. If you are on any medications, including heart rate medication, discuss CBD with your doctor before using.

Does CBD increase your heart rate?

One study we reviewed did record an increase in heart rate after consumption of CBD (though the blood pressure of the participants was lowered). However, other studies (and our own experiments) indicate that CBD is more likely to decrease heart rate.

Does vaping CBD increase heart rate?

Vaping CBD does allow you to consume more concentrated doses of CBD, which may have more of an affect on heart rate than other methods. But the evidence indicates that even at more potent doses CBD is more likely to decrease than increase your heart rate.

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