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how long are packaged seeds good for

What’s the Shelf Life of a Packet of Seeds

What is the shelf life of packaged seeds? I have some seeds I didn’t start this past year, can I start them next spring?

Answer: When using seed packets to help grow a beautiful garden, there are often seeds left over. Instead of tossing them in the trash, you should store seeds for the next growing season, to once again fill your garden with the same, lovely, thriving plants.

To use the seeds at a later time, many gardeners will try to organize them by shelf life. However, the truth is there is no exact expiration date for seeds. Some may store successfully for only a year, while others will last for several. The longevity of the seeds will vary greatly depending on plant variety as well as proper storage.

To help ensure that your seeds will still be viable for next spring, it is important to store them correctly. Keep them secured in a sealed container/bag in a cool, dark and dry location. Once the next growing season approaches, you can also test their vitality by performing a water or germination text.

For the seeds you’re considering trying that were left from last year, think about the conditions in which they were saved. If it was cool, dry and dark, they have a good chance. You can test their viability, too.

I have a few seed packets leftover from last year. How long do packaged seeds stay viable? Can I start these old seeds this year?

How to Save Your Vegetable Seeds for Next Year

Learn to save vegetable seeds for years to come.

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The Spruce / Michelle Becker

A packet of vegetable seeds may look dry, brittle, and lifeless, but in many cases, seeds are very much alive. Inside each plant seed is the embryo of a future plant. However, seeds do not remain alive forever. How long seeds remain viable depends on the type of seed and how well it is stored.

Most Vegetable Seeds Can Stay Viable for Years

Most vegetable seeds remain good for about two to three years, but some, such as onions, deteriorate within a year and others such as lettuce, can successfully sprout after five years. The table below lists average years of viability for well-stored vegetable seeds, compiled from regional sources. There will be some variability because of the variety of seed and whether the seed was fully ripe and kept dry in storage.

Seed Storage Guidelines

Vegetable Storage Years Vegetable Storage Years
Arugula 4 Leek 2
Bean 3 Lettuce 5
Beet 4 Muskmelon 5
Broccoli 3 Mustard 4
Brussels Sprouts 4 Okra 2
Cabbage 4 Onion 1
Carrot 3 Parsley 1
Cauliflower 4 Parsnip 1
Celeriac 3 Pea 3
Celery 3 Pepper 2
Chard, Swiss 4 Pumpkin 4
Chicory 4 Radish 4
Chinese Cabbage 3 Rutabaga 4
Collards 5 Salsify 1
Corn Salad 5 Scorzonera 1
Corn, Sweet 2 Sorrel 4
Cucumber 5 Spinach 2
Eggplant 4 Squash 4
Endive 5 Tomato 4
Fennel 4 Turnip 4
Kale 4 Water Cress 5
Kohlrabi 3 Watermelon 4

How to Store Vegetable Seeds

You can’t do anything to change the life expectancy of different types of seeds. But if you save your own seed or need to store purchased seed, you can keep it fresh for the maximum amount of time by taking these steps to store it properly.

  • Be certain the seeds are completely dry, to the point of being brittle, before you pack them away.
  • Place dried seeds in a paper envelope, to absorb any moisture that might get in, and label with the name and year.
  • Keep the envelopes in an airtight container out of direct sunlight.
  • Store in a cool, dry place.

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The Spruce / Michelle Becker

How to Test Seeds for Viability

There’s an easy way to determine how viable your saved seed is and what percentage of it you can expect to germinate.

You Will Need:

  • 10 seeds
  • Paper towels
  • Water
  • Sealable plastic bag
  • Permanent marker

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The Spruce / Michelle Becker

Moisten a sheet of paper towel so that it’s uniformly damp, but not dripping wet.

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The Spruce / Michelle Becker

Place the 10 seeds in a row along the damp paper towel.

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The Spruce / Michelle Becker

Roll or fold the paper towel around the seeds so that they are covered.

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The Spruce / Michelle Becker

Place the paper towel with the seeds into the plastic bag and seal it. Write the date on the plastic bag, so there’s no guesswork involved. If you are testing more than one type of seed, also label the bag with the seed type and variety.

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The Spruce / Michelle Becker

Place the plastic bag somewhere warm, about 70 degrees Fahrenheit (a sunny windowsill or on top of the refrigerator should work).

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The Spruce / Michelle Becker

Check daily to be sure the paper towel does not dry out. It shouldn’t because it is sealed, but if it gets very warm, you may need to re-moisten the towel with a spray bottle.

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The Spruce / Michelle Becker

Start checking for germination in about five days. To do this, gently unroll the paper towel. You may even be able to see sprouting through the rolled towel. Very often the roots will grow right through it.

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The Spruce / Michelle Becker

Check your seed packet for average germination times for your particular seed, but generally, 7–10 days should be enough time for the test.

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The Spruce / Michelle Becker

After 10 days, unroll the paper towel and count how many seeds have sprouted. This will give you the percentage germination you can expect from the remaining seeds in the packet. If only three sprouted, it is a 30% germination rate. Seven would be a 70% germination rate, nine would be a 90% germination rate, and so on.

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The Spruce / Michelle Becker

What the Germination Rate Tells You

Realistically, if less than 70% of your test seed germinated, you would be better off starting with fresh seed.

If 70–90% germinated, the seed should be fine to use, but you should sow it a little thicker than you normally would.

If 100% germinated, your seed is viable and you’re ready to plant.

There is no need to waste the seeds that have germinated; they can be planted. Don’t let them dry out and handle them very carefully so that you don’t break the roots or growing tip. It’s often easiest to just cut the paper towel between seeds and plant the seed, towel and all. If the root has grown through the towel, it is almost impossible to separate them without breaking the root. The paper towel will rot quickly enough and, in the meantime, it will help hold water near the roots.

Many vegetable seeds can be viable for years if they're stored properly. Learn how long each type of seed can survive and how to store and test them.