Ever wondered how those marijuana seed banks make feminized seeds? Learn how to create your own feminized seeds at home using two female plants! When it comes to cannabis plants, feminized seeds are the most known ones. But do you know what auto and regular means? 1. Photoperiodic Cannabis Photoperiodi How do I germinate marijuana seeds? Cannabis germination is the process of getting your seeds to sprout, and you know sprouting has occurred when a little white tendril pops out of the seed.
How to Make Feminized Seeds at Home
First of all, what are “feminized” marijuana seeds? Although male and female plants look the same when young, only female cannabis plants make buds. Male cannabis plants grow non-potent pollen sacs instead. Male plants also lower yields and cause seedy buds if they’re left among your female plants for too long. Because male plants don’t make buds and their presence reduces the quality of buds, most growers toss male plants the moment they see pollen sacs forming. However, since about half of regular cannabis seeds end up being male, that means you end up tossing half your plants once they start flowering.
Feminized seeds come from two female plants being bred together, causing all offspring to be female (which means every plant makes buds)
While regular seeds make female plants about half the time, feminized seeds only create female plants. That means you won’t need to toss half the plants once they start flowering. But how are feminized seeds made and can you make them at home?
Feminized seeds are created by breeding two female plants together. Because there are no male parents, all the resulting seeds end up being bud-bearing female plants. With feminized seeds, you can count on every plant to produce buds. Learn more about male vs female plants and feminized cannabis seeds.
Feminized seeds are available from seed banks for nearly every popular or famous strain. Breeders understand that a lot of people just want to grow plants for buds, and don’t care about making a robust breeding program (which is one of the main reasons growers want male plants).
You can’t see the difference between male and female plants until they start flowering (unless you do a genetic test). Feminized seeds ensure all plants are female so you don’t need to worry about it. You know that every plant is female from germination.
So how do seed banks feminize their seeds? How do you breed two female plants together?
The main idea is to force a female plant to produce pollen sacs like a male plant. These flowers (growing on a female plant) create pollen, which can be harvested and used to pollinate another female cannabis plant. The resulting seeds will all end up being female. Can feminizing seeds cause hermaphrodite plants?
Growers can force a female plant to make pollen sacs, and the “feminized” pollen produced can be used to fertilize another female plant. The resulting seeds will only produce female plants.
How do you force a female plant to make pollen?
There are two main ways to make feminized pollen:
- Induce feminized pollen chemically (Recommended) – This is the professional way to feminize seeds and is how reputable seed banks and breeders create feminized seeds to sell to the public. Substances that interact with plant processes such as colloidal silver or gibberellic acid are applied to bud sites of a female plant when they start flowering. Bud sites are drenched daily for the first 3-4 weeks after the switch to 12/12. This causes a female plant to produce pollen sacs which release feminized pollen when they open up. This pollen is used on another female plant to produce feminized seeds. This article will give you step-by-step instructions on how to feminize cannabis seeds using this method.
- Rhodelization (Not Recommended!) – In some cases, a female cannabis plant may naturally start making male pollen sacs or bananas, which can self-pollinate the plant. This happens if the plant is stressed, or if the plant is not harvested in time and buds start to die of old age. The plant is basically doing everything it can to make seeds and save the next generation. This method is “natural” and these seeds end up being mostly female. The problem with this method is you’re selecting for plants that naturally turn into hermies (grow both male and female sex organs) without any chemical induction. This means the resulting seeds are much more likely to turn hermie in natural conditions, too. That’s a problem if you don’t want seedy buds every time you harvest. For that reason, it’s highly recommended you don’t feminize seeds this way. It’s also a good idea to toss any and all seeds that are the result of natural herming (for example seeds you find in your buds even though you didn’t grow any male plants).
Read this article for more in-depth discussion about the pros and cons of each method, and how to avoid hermaphrodite plants when producing your own feminized seeds.
Overview: How to Make Feminized Seeds
This is a quick overview of the process, and then I’ll give the full details and steps below.
1.) Buy or Make Colloidal Silver – The article below will teach you how to make colloidal silver at home, as well as show you where to buy it if you don’t want to make it (it’s actually pretty cheap). It’s basically a solution of silver suspended in water and is available online and in health stores as a dietary supplement.
What about gibberellic acid? From what I understand it can be used exactly the same way as colloidal silver to induce female plants to produce pollen, but I don’t know the recipe for an effective gibberellic acid solution. On the other hand, I know that this exact colloidal silver method works for making feminized seeds. That’s why I’ve only included instructions for colloidal silver. If you’ve used gibberellic acid to make feminized seeds; we’d love to hear from you.
2.) Spray the bud sites of your known female plant daily during the first 3-4 weeks of the flowering stage (until pollen sacs form and start splitting open) – After switching to a 12/12 light schedule to initiate the flowering stage, choose bud sites on your known female plant, and spray/drench them daily with colloidal silver (or gibberellic acid). As the treated flowers develop, they will form into male pollen sacs instead of regular buds. Untreated bud sites on the plant will form into female buds as usual; however, these buds are unsafe to smoke unless you’ve been very careful to make sure they didn’t come into contact with colloidal silver or gibberellic acid during the feminization process as these are unsafe for smoking.
3.) Harvest “Feminized” Pollen – When pollen sacs are ready to be harvested they swell like a balloon and start to open up. Don’t harvest early! Keep spraying the bud sites daily until pollen sacs open or you might end up with empty pollen sacs. When the pollen sacs are ready, the leaf section protecting the pollen will start to crack. At this point, it’s time to collect the feminized pollen. One of the easiest ways to do this is to collect the pollen sacs directly and let them dry for a week. At that point, they can be placed in a bag and shaken to collect all the pollen.
4.) Pollinate Another Female Plant – At this point, take the feminized pollen you’ve collected and use it to pollinate a female plant that has been flowering for about 2-3 weeks (full detailed instructions with a video on how to do this below). Although it’s possible to pollinate the same plant as the original, it’s not recommended in part because the timing doesn’t match up (pollinating buds late in the flowering stage doesn’t produce many seeds). It’s best to pollinate a different female plant that you started budding a few weeks after the original. This increases the number of seeds produced as well as gives the new female plant enough time to develop them to maturity. It also increases genetic diversity compared to self-pollination.
5.) Wait ~6 Weeks After Pollination to Harvest Seeds – After about 6 weeks from pollination, the calyxes on the buds of your female plant will be swollen and fat. You know it’s time to harvest your seeds when they start bursting out. At this point, it’s time to congratulate yourself because you’ve got feminized seeds!
Now that you’ve gotten the overview, here’s the feminization process with detailed step-by-step instructions…
Step-By-Step Instructions (with pics!)
1.) Buy or Make Colloidal Silver (or Gibberellic Acid)
Where to get Colloidal Silver (your options):
Buy Ready-To-Use Colloidal Silver: Colloidal silver is sometimes used as a dietary supplement, so it’s relatively easy to find (never take it without talking to a doctor first though!). If you’re purchasing colloidal silver, try to find a solution that has at least 30 PPM (parts per million) of silver or higher.
- Buy A Colloidal Silver Generator Kit: If you plan on feminizing a lot of seeds, you may want to invest in a generator kit so you can easily make your own endless supply of colloidal silver. This is cheaper in the long run compared to buying it ready-to-use.
- Make Your Own: You can make your own colloidal silver generator at home. The following diagram illustrates what you need to do.
Note: You can purchase gibberellic acid online (a gibberellic acid solution can be used the same way as colloidal silver for feminizing seeds). However, I do not have experience with the gibberellic acid method and don’t know the best way to prepare the solution.
2.) Spray the bud sites of your known female plant daily during the first 3-4 weeks of the flowering stage (until pollen sacs form and start splitting open)
Wait until your plant is 5-6 weeks old before initiating the flowering stage. Some young plants seem to have trouble (and take much longer) to go through the feminization process, and their pollen may not be as fertile, so start with a more mature plant.
When plants are ready, change to a 12/12 light schedule to initiate flower formation and put cannabis plants in the flowering stage. Note: If you’re feminizing an auto-flowering plant, start spraying daily when the plant is about 20 days old from seed. This is when most auto-flowering cannabis strains start making flowers.
As soon as you change the light schedule (and maybe even a day or two before) start spraying your plants thoroughly with colloidal silver at every bud site you want to form into pollen sacs.
Spray bud sites thoroughly, drenching them with colloidal silver every single day. Bud sites are located wherever leaves meet stems.
The above pic shows you where pollen sacs form on the plant (the same places female buds form).
Important! Keep spraying daily until pollen sacs open up. Don’t stop spraying early, even if pollen sacs appear to be already formed, otherwise they may not produce much pollen
A spray bottle / mister is really helpful for spraying bud sites evenly and thoroughly
You can choose to treat a single bud site or all the bud sites on the plant. Any untreated bud sites will develop into female buds as usual. If you want to smoke these buds, it’s incredibly important to avoid letting them come into contact with colloidal silver because silver is not safe to smoke. (Don’t worry, feminized seeds don’t contain any silver). I highly recommend letting the whole plant be your test subject so you don’t have to worry about that
3.) Harvest Your Feminized Pollen
When pollen sacs are starting to crack and look like they’re about to open up (or if you can see one has already opened) then your pollen is ready for harvest!
When pollen sacs are cracking and opening up, you’re ready to harvest your pollen!
Pollen spilling onto a nearby leaf
One way to harvest your pollen is to gently and carefully remove all the pollen sacs. Let them dry in open air for a week, and then put them in a resealable bag. If you shake the bag the pollen should easily spill out. You may need to cut a few open yourself.
How to Store Feminized Pollen: Moisture is your main enemy when storing pollen. It can help to double the mass of the pollen collected by adding regular cooking flour. This absorbs moisture during storage and as an added bonus, it increases the volume to make application easier when you get to pollinating. If pollen is totally dry and you triple-bag the pollen-flour mixture and stick it in the freezer (with a good nametag so you know where the pollen came from), your pollen can be stored for a year or longer. You can add a few silica packs (which suck out any remaining moisture) in the bag to make extra sure that the pollen stays totally dry.
4.) Pollinate Another Female Plant
When your chosen mother is 2-3 weeks into the flowering stage, take a small paintbrush or powder brush and ‘paint’ your feminized pollen on the developing bud sites you want to pollinate. Bud sites (for both male and female plants) are located wherever you can see leaves meet a stem.
Buds are ready to get pollinated when they look like little bunches of white hairs
Only the buds that come in contact with pollen will grow seeds. You can choose to pollinate all of your buds or just a few on the plant.
Here’s a video by Ed Rosenthal on Youtube showing you how to pollinate buds with pollen. Make sure to touch all the female pistils/hairs with your pollen.
5.) Wait About 6 Weeks Then Harvest Seeds
It usually takes about 6 weeks for your feminized seeds to fully develop. Some plants are literally dying right as the seeds become ready, so to get the most viable seeds, you need to try to keep it alive until the seeds actually start dropping. The seeds can be used right away, or stored in a cool, dry place for a few years. Don’t forget to label them with the date.
This seed is about to burst out of its calyx
This is what it looks like when the seed is exposed
Picture Journal of Making Feminized Pollen with Colloidal Silver
This grower initiated the feminization process on a seedling that was only a few weeks old. As a result, the plant wasn’t able to get big enough to produce many pollen sacs. You will get even better results if you start with a plant that is at least 5 weeks old
October 18 – Plant right before the switch to 12/12
October 27 – After being drenched with colloidal silver daily for a little over a week
October 30 – Pollen sacs are forming
November 15 – Pollen sacs appear to be almost fully formed and are swelling in size, but haven’t opened up yet. Don’t stop spraying colloidal silver or you may end up with empty sacs!
November 27 – Pollen sacs are opening up! Collect the pollen before they’re all open!
FAQs – Frequently Asked Questions
How can I identify plant gender before the plant actually starts flowering?
There are a few ways to identify plant gender before the plant actually starts flowering, and each is helpful in different situations.
- Use feminized seeds – All your plants will be female if you start with pre-made feminized seeds.
- Start with a clone – A clone is an exact copy of another plant. If the “mother” of the clone is a female plant, it means the clone is also female
- Look at preflowers (identify plants when they’re 3-6 weeks from seed) – If you know where to look, cannabis plants will actually reveal their gender in the vegetative stage when they’re just 3-6 weeks from seeds. Male plants usually show their gender by 3-6 weeks and female plants usually show their gender around week 4-8 from seed. Learn how to determine the sex in the veg stage by looking at preflowers.
- Test the leaves of your seedling in a lab – It’s possible to send in a leaf from a young cannabis plant to a specialized testing company, and they will be able to determine the gender as soon as 3 weeks from seed! Although I haven’t used any of these companies and can’t recommend any in particular, here’s a link to one example just so you can see what I’m talking about. From talking to other growers who use this method, it appears to be accurate.
- Take a clone and force it to start flowering – if you take a clone from a vegetative plant, you can force that clone to start flowering and reveal its gender. You’ll know the sex of the “parent” plant by the sex expressed by the clone. This is what I do to determine the sex. I cut off a piece of the plant, stick it in a glass of water (don’t forget to label it with the strain), and give it a 12/12 light schedule until the little piece starts forming either pollen sacs or buds.
The easiest way to identify sex with unknown seedlings? Cut off a small branch of the plant, stick it in a cup of water with a label, and keep it in a sunny window on a 12/12 light schedule until buds or pollen sacs start forming. As long as the plant is getting bright light in the day and long dark nights, it will reveal its sex in just a few weeks (you don’t even need to wait for roots to form).
Can I Make a Breeding Program Using Just Female Plants and Feminized Seeds?
Yes, it’s possible to use just female plants and feminized seeds for further breeding, with one major caveat.
Without careful and thorough testing, it may be possible to accidentally select cannabis plants that tend to herm (make male flowers or pollen) and cause seedy buds when you don’t want them to.
For each possible “mother,” clones should be grown in several different environments and tested thoroughly to make sure that the mother plant does not have any tendency to make pollen naturally in normal or stressful conditions. It’s okay if plants grow pollen sacs if induced chemically since that is very unlikely to happen in someone’s garden on accident, but you don’t want plants that will start growing male flowers on their own without chemical induction. Thorough testing of plant hardiness is always important when breeding, but it may be especially important when breeding feminized seeds together.
Are there other reasons I should avoid breeding seeds without males?
The most common reason growers say you shouldn’t do this is because it’s “unnatural” or doesn’t “seem right.” Some growers say you need male plants for genetic diversity. I’ve also heard growers say that the resulting plants will be weaker, sterile, and less potent. Someone once even told me that resulting plants “will be worse in every way.”
As of yet, I haven’t seen any of these claims backed by actual personal experience, or any real-life examples showing why using feminized seeds is not a viable way to breed new strains.
To those who say this type of reproduction just doesn’t seem right, the evolutionary strategy of plants using only female and hermaphrodite plants to breed is actually pretty common and is known as gynodioecy. One example of a plant that only reproduces this way is a flower found in Canada and the US called Lobelia siphilitica, also known as the Great Lobelia. Obviously, this reproduction method isn’t exactly the same as artificial feminization since the pollen production is caused naturally instead of induced chemically, but examples of gynodioecy show that a female flower-based breeding population can exist in the wild even when no plants are purely male.
The Great Lobelia naturally reproduces using only female and hermaphrodite plants. This is similar to the cannabis feminization process because it results in a population of plants that all primarily grow female flowers, with no pure male plants
When it comes to genetic diversity, the ability to cross out to thousands of different cannabis strains allows you to dramatically increase the gene pool without using male plants. So those are my answers to the common objections of a feminized seed-based breeding program, however I am just a theory-crafter when it comes to this topic. It certainly seems possible that a feminized-only breeding program could run into unforeseen problems down the road, but as far as I know there isn’t any evidence of that so far.
Although I have a few anecdotes from growers who have used only feminized seeds for a few generations, it would be much better to share information from someone who has conducted plenty of testing over several generations. We’d love to hear from you if you have bred more than a few generations using only feminized seeds and want to share your experience.
What are the positive aspects of breeding two feminized seeds together?
Besides not having to worry about male plants in the next generation, the main advantage of doing this is you have a much better idea of what you’re working with when it comes to producing the type of buds you’re looking for. When you’re growing a male plant, it has several genes it will pass to its offspring that has to do with how buds develop, but since it’s a male plant those genes aren’t expressed and it’s hard to figure out what they are.
Historically, the way to learn more about the “hidden genes” contained in a male plant is to breed it to several well-known female plants and see how the offspring compare to each other. The genes that don’t come from the known mother plant are assumed to come from the male. Another way of going about this is to take several clones of the same well-known female plant and breed them with many different male plants to see which ones produce the best offspring.
After testing with several pairings, you start to get an idea of the hidden genes a male plant has to offer to its female offspring. This time-consuming process of documenting and identifying good male plants is why proven stud male plants are one of the most valuable and closely guarded types of clones available today.
But the process of finding the right “father” is a little different when you start with two female plants. In this case, you already know quite a bit about the genes of both parents because you can just look at and test the buds of both plants directly. This allows you to pinpoint desirable genes with less guessing and much less time spent growing out and cataloging plants.
Breeding two female plants together offer hints about what kind of buds their genes will produce
Why even have male plants then?
In nature, male plants are effective at increasing genetic diversity by ensuring cross-pollination. With only purely male and purely female plants, every resulting seed will have two different parents.
Another big advantage in the wild of having separate female and male plants is sexual specialization. In other words, plants are able to evolve male and female traits separately, so each type of flower can become more specialized at its unique “job.”
However, this isn’t the only successful breeding strategy for plants. In fact, only 6-7% of plants have completely separate male and female plants like cannabis plants do (known as dioecious plants). Most plants grow some mix of male and female flowers on each plant, with different combinations offering different evolutionary benefits.
You might enjoy this scientific article if you want to learn more about the evolution of sex determination in plants and animals: Sex Determination: Why So Many Ways of Doing It?
And although most cannabis strains (at least the good ones) display either purely male or purely female flowers, there are some wild populations (and some strains of hemp) that regularly produce plants with male and female parts on the same plant.
When it comes to artificial selection for breeding new strains, the grower is in charge of cross-pollination, so there’s no need for the plant to specialize in male parts. Pretty much the only thing most growers care about is how female flowers develop. So (unlike in nature) growers have the freedom to choose plants that improve female buds without even having to consider how it might affect male plants.
Only a small percentage of plant species produce male plants like cannabis.
Can feminizing seeds result in hermaphrodite plants?
The answer is yes. If you do it the wrong way then feminization can lead to plants with an increased chance of herming. However, with a well-tested and well-bred feminization program, one of the main goals is to breed out any plants with hermaphroditic tendencies that show up under normal conditions. When you buy feminized seeds from trustworthy breeders, you can count on the fact that every plant will end up growing only female flowers and that’s it.
This is a relatively big topic with a lot of opposing opinions so I wrote a whole article about it.
Feminizing seeds the wrong way can result in hermaphrodite plants.
Can I pollinate the same plant I collected the pollen from?
Yes, it’s possible. However, it’s not really recommended because, for one, the timing doesn’t match up. By the time your pollen is ready to use, your original plant will already be several weeks past the optimum pollination point. It’s best to pollinate a female plant that has only been flowering about 2-3 weeks, but pollen sacs need more time before pollen is ready to use. It’s also possible to run into unwanted side effects from self-pollination/in-breeding.
One thing to keep in mind is even if you pollinate a plant to itself, the resulting seeds are likely not going to be exact copies of the original (unless the original plant is extremely inbred). The resulting seeds include not just the mother’s expressed genes but also her hidden ones.
How to produce cannabis seeds
When it comes to cannabis plants, feminized seeds are the most known ones. But do you know what auto and regular means?
1. Photoperiodic Cannabis
Photoperiodism isn’t unique to cannabis plants, many flowering plants sense changes in the length of night and day and use those changes as signals for when to flower. Photoperiodic cannabis plants are just like that, they basically respond to changes in the light cycle. As the night becomes longer at the beginning of autumn (in nature) or when you flip to 12/12 in a grow tent, the plant receives more darkness. This causes the plant to realize that its life cycle is coming to an end and they will start to flower (females) or produce pollen (males) in order to reproduce before winter.
Regular Photoperiodic Cannabis
Regular cannabis is photoperiodic cannabis that produces both male and female plants. They are called regular because they are produced the “natural way”: the pollen from the male plant pollinates the female, resulting in seeds. Back in the day, the only way to grow cannabis was with regular seeds, this way you would get half male and half females plants. There is a big difference between male and female plants, while female grows buds, male plants will only grow pollen sacs.
In nature male cannabis’ pollen sacs will open to release pollen which will pollinate the female flowers, this way producing seeds. But most growers that grow cannabis commercially or for their own consumption only want buds, allowing males to pollinate buds would ruin their harvest because pollination diminishes yield, so they’re mainly looking for female plants.
Feminized Photoperiodic Cannabis
To completely avoid accidental pollination and other problems related to male plants, feminized seeds were created. Feminized seeds come from the cross of two female plants, one of them is stressed so it starts producing pollen sacs, which will fertilize the other female. When you cultivate feminized seeds, the offspring will be only female plants. This takes out a lot of the unnecessary work that you can have when growing males and them not being able to use them. Ever since the boom of feminized seeds back in 1998, growers have stopped buying regular seeds for quite a bit. Nowadays most seed banks don’t even sell regular seeds anymore. With so much focus on feminized seeds, we can’t forget that regular seeds are vital for the creation of new strains.
2. Automatic Flowering Cannabis
You must already know that the characteristic that makes autoflowers an auto is they don’t need a different light cycle to enter the flowering stage. Like their name says, autoflowers start flowering automatically depending on age, and unlike regular and feminized cannabis that needs a change in the light cycle to start flowering. Autos don’t need anything else other than time to start producing buds.
But that trait didn’t come out of anywhere, it appeared as an adaptation to the environment. You’ve probably heard of Cannabis Indica and Sativa…well, the autoflowering gene comes from Cannabis Ruderalis. The Ruderalis species adapted to the extremely cold and harsh climates of Asia, Europe, and Russia. These regions have shorter warm seasons and colder temperatures. Because of this, Ruderalis started mutating from a photoperiodic plant to an autoflowering plant, to guarantee its reproduction before the temperatures reached freezing levels. Thanks to that adaptation, now we have autoflowers that take considerably less time from seed to harvest.
3. How To Make Your Own Seeds
Producing your own seeds is relatively easy if you have what it’s needed but that doesn’t mean the result will be a perfect strain. The good strains or “IBLs” that most seed banks sell are strains that have been developed for years and are far into the third or fourth generation. IBL or stabilized strain means the offspring will have certain characteristics locked down. When you cross two strains for the first time the offspring can have infinite phenotypes and this is not good for commercializing.
Photoperiodic Regular Seeds
When we talk about cannabis, it’s easy to forget about male plants. Everybody nowadays is used to the beautiful flowers we all love, but it’s important to remember that male cannabis plants are just as important as females. Male cannabis plants produce pollen and are an essential element in the production of new cannabis plants. This pollen is super important in breeding cannabis as it allows breeders to create crosses with genetics from different plants and create their own seeds. For producing seeds all you need is pollen and buds. Cannabis pollen is no different from regular pollen produced by other plants. It’s a fine powder that usually has a golden yellow color and is excreted from the pollen sac on male plants.
Collecting pollen is simple. You’ll know when its ready to be collected when the pollen sacks are open and you see pollen floating in the air and on the leaves near them. When this happens, you can gently remove the sacs and store them in a ziplock bag, once you are ready to pollinate just release the pollen onto the buds. Another way is to simply agitate your male plants near the female plants, the pollen will stick to the buds. Pollen is used in order to pollinate female plants and create seeds. In nature, female plants get pollinated by the wind which carries the male pollen. Cannabis seeds develop in the buds about 4-6 weeks after pollination, you will see the calyxes start to round up from the seeds being inside them.
Pollinated buds look quite different from regular buds. They usually don’t have as many trichomes and are usually smaller and a lot more swollen. 4 weeks after pollination, you can start checking the buds to see if the seeds are ready for harvest by picking a couple of seeds from the bud. Mature seeds will have a hard shell and be a dark brown color, they might also have some stripes on the outer shell.
Photoperiodic Feminized Seeds
Normally, a male cannabis plant has to pollinate a female plant to produce seeds. The resulting regular seeds will contain about half male and half female seeds. The way feminized seeds are produced is the same but instead of collecting the pollen from a male, breeders will stress or spray flowers with colloidal silver, for example. This process forces the female plants to become a hermaphrodite and starts producing pollen sacs. Hermaphrodite plants are females that are halfway turned into males, this means she has both male (pollen sacs) and female (buds) parts.
By picking out the pollen sacs and using a reverted plant’s pollen to pollinate a female plant, you will have only female genes as there is no “father”, this way you get feminized seeds, meaning the offspring will be 100% female plants.
Feminized and Regular Autoflowering Seeds
Regular Autoflowering Seeds
Usually, you can find regular and feminized seeds, and this applies to autoflowering seeds also. This means you can find male and female autoflowers, depending on the type of seed you buy (regular = 50% male and 50% female, feminized = 100% female). Unfortunately the high increase in the production of feminized seeds affected automatic seeds also. Although it’s not common to find regular auto seeds nowadays, they do exist. For producing regular autoflowering seeds all you need is male pollen and female buds, just like for regular photoperiodic cannabis. The process is basically the same, collect the pollen from the male and spread it on the buds, this will result in regular autoflowering seeds.
Feminized Autoflowering Seeds
The process of producing feminized autoflowering seeds is almost the same, the only difference is you will need two female autos instead of one male and one female. You will have to make one of your female autos produce pollen, either by stressing her out or spraying with colloidal silver and pollinating the other female. This will result in a 100% female automatic offspring.
4. Pollen Collection and Storage, and Proper Pollination Techniques
The process of collecting pollen from either a male or a hermaphrodite cannabis plant is a piece of cake, but you do have to be very careful if you have female plants nearby. One male or hermie plant can pollinate a whole crop if you are not alert and aware of the stage the pollen sacks are at, so always try to keep any pollen-producing plants well quarantined from any females that you want to keep seed free. The best way to harvest the pollen is to carefully remove the whole pollen sac flower head, let it dry for a couple of days to a week and then transfer the whole shebang to a sealable container or zip-lock bag. Once in the bag or container, you can give the whole thing a bit of a shake and the pollen should fall right out In terms of pollen storage, there are a few factors to take into consideration. Temperature and moisture levels are the most important things to control. Our tried and true method for at-home storage of cannabis pollen is:
- Collect the pollen and place it in a sealed container or zip lock bag.
- Add regular baking flour – about double the weight of pollen. This doesn’t need to be super exact, but it helps greatly with moisture absorption and spreads your pollen out much further.
- Place the whole thing into the freezer where it can be stored for up to a year.
- Pollen hates temp fluctuations, so leave it be until you are sure you are ready to use it
When you are ready to pollinate your plant the process is again nothing more than child’s play, but you have to be very careful not to spread the pollen to plants that you want to remain seedless. This can be a little difficult if the plants are rooted into the ground, but if they are in pots then the job is much safer.
Just move whichever female plant you want to produce seeds to an area well away from the rest of the crop. There are a few ways to pollinate your plant, but our favorite method is this:
- Wait until the female plant is in her 2nd or 3rd week of the flowering cycle. At this point, you should see pistils forming fully (the small white hair-like growths)
- Grab your pre-collected pollen from the freezer and let it come to room temp over a few hours
- Dip a small, fine paintbrush or Q-tip into the pollen and apply it to the pistils of the budding sites that you want to produce seeds
- We recommend focusing on the budding sites on the lower branches – the popcorn bud producing areas. These buds are usually the lowest quality in terms of smokeability and trichome production, so use these ones for seeds instead!
- Seeds usually take around 4 – 5 weeks to mature fully. A mature cannabis seed is brown in color with tiger-like stripes and a hard outer shell.
A common question asked is – how many seeds a single budding site will produce? This is an impossible question to answer, as it varies widely between strains and the size of the budding site. But a fully pollinated plant can produce A LOT of seeds.
5. In Conclusion
Even though it is fairly easy to produce seeds, we recommend having a bit of experience before trying it. We recommend easy-to-grow strains like Zkittlez Auto to start acquiring experience before going into breeding.
Just an easy to grow, solid packed buds. A heavy feeder and can be a bit prone to light burn at the end but otherwise perfection!
A breeding operation needs a lot of caution, even the smallest amount of pollen may ruin your entire harvest. Remember you should always buy seeds from a reputable seed bank. If you buy bad genetics, your plants can become a hermaphrodite easily and what was initially cheap can end up being surprisingly expensive.
How do I germinate marijuana seeds?
Cannabis germination is the process of getting your seeds to sprout, and you know sprouting has occurred when a little white tendril pops out of the seed.
The little white tendril that emerges from a cannabis seed during germination is your plant’s first root, known as a “taproot.” All other roots made by your cannabis plant in its lifetime will sprout from the taproot.
The taproot – and maybe a few tiny early offshoots of the taproot – will get longer and longer, pushing the seed up, and after the shell breaks through the surface of your growing medium, the first leaves (these first round leaves are known as “cotyledons”) will emerge from inside the cannabis seed.
The cotyledons were already created as part of the plant embryo in the seed itself, so the cannabis seedling doesn’t have to grow them. In fact, the emerging first leaves are what break apart the shell after it’s cracked open by the taproot, as pictured here.
The next set of leaves after the cotyledons are your plants first “true” leaves and will have jagged edges (serrations). At least, they are the first leaves that your seedling cannabis plant has grown all on its own, unlike the cotyledons which were already formed in the seed.
Cannabis seeds can be expensive, don’t waste your seeds with bad germination methods!
(Wait, where can I get cannabis seeds?)
What Do Marijuana Seeds Need to Germinate?
Marijuana seeds need the following to get the best germination rates:
- Moisture – Keep things moist but not soaking (you can soak hard seeds for up to 24-32 hours, but do not leave seeds soaking in water for longer than that).
- Peace – Seeds need to be left alone while you’re waiting for the taproot to show up.
- Warmth – Keep things warm to get the best germination rates, but not too hot! Think springtime. Seeds can definitely germinate in cooler temps, but germination tends to take longer when it’s cool.
- Gentle – Be careful when checking seeds, and treat them gently when you have to move them. Avoid touching their white root if possible; the taproot is very fragile and easily snaps off!
- Plant Root Down – When planting germinated seeds, point the white root downwards into the growing medium to prevent the seedling from having to reorient itself.
- Plant Knuckle Deep – When planting germinated seeds, they don’t have to be placed too far under in the growing medium, about a half inch to an inch (1.3 cm – 2.5 cm) down from the surface of the medium should be enough.
When germinating cannabis seeds, think springtime conditions. In the wild, your cannabis seeds would germinate in the spring so they can be ready to take full advantage of long summer days!
Never let your young sprouted seeds dry up!
The main signal that tells a marijuana seed to start sprouting is the presence of moisture and heat. The combination of warm and wet (aka spring conditions) “tells” the seed to start burrowing their main root (called a taproot) through their shell.
If a seed’s root breaks through the shell and the water around has dried up, your seedling will die. Plain and simple.
Seedlings are fragile at first. Once sprouted, the roots need to stay constantly moist to stay happy and healthy. It’s important to make sure the seeds have access to water the entire time during germination, no matter which cannabis germination method you end up using.
Keep things warm!
Seeds germinate best in warmer temperatures and young marijuana seedlings do better with higher relative humidity in the air. When seedlings are young, they grow faster and healthier when they can absorb moisture from the air through their leaves while their roots are still developing. Dry air won’t kill your seedlings, but it doesn’t make things better. Again, think springtime conditions!
You can use an incandescent bulb (or two) placed over the marijuana seed germination area to help keep things warm. Incandescent bulbs are the opposite of what a grower typically wants: they can’t be used as grow lights, but they’re great at generating heat. Some people will also place a heating pad (the kind you get from a garden store for seedlings) underneath seeds to help aid germination.
Basically, you want to make sure any seeds or sprouts are kept warm and moist at all times, that their roots are unexposed to light, and that they get planted right away.
There are several different methods to germinate your cannabis seeds, and in this article we’ll go through some easy techniques that have proven to be effective.
How do I know if my seeds are good?
Assume all dark seeds are viable, even if seeds can be crushed
Generally, pale-green or white seeds will not germinate, but most dark seeds will germinate when given good conditions.
I used to believe that marijuana seeds were only “good” if they were extremely hard and very dark. One of the first tests I heard to check new cannabis seeds for viability was to try to crush them between my fingers. If the seeds could be crushed, they weren’t good, or so I was told. This has proven to be absolutely terrible advice!
Some of the best plants I have ever grown have emerged from seeds which were flimsy and could be crushed between my fingers. As long as you provide great marijuana germination conditions (as explained above), I’ve found that a lot of seemingly “weak” seeds germinate and produce amazingly hardy plants and great buds.
I do not believe the health of the plant is directly tied to the apparent “health” of the seed. If the seed germinates, it’s a good seed!
Here’s a picture showing several healthy and viable cannabis seeds
Remember! Most of the medical strains of marijuana we grow today (learn how to get seeds) have been bred over many years to produce plants that are easy to grow and which produce potent, medicinal buds. However, these strains have not been selected for the toughness of the seeds they produce since that isn’t important to us as growers. Just remember…
As long as a seed germinates, it’s a good seed!
Germination Method 1: Starter Cubes & Seedling Plugs (Recommended)
One of the best cannabis germination methods is to use specifically-made starter cubes and seedling plugs. These plugs make cannabis germination easy. You simply place the seed in the cube or plug, add water as directed, and seedlings automatically get the perfect conditions for germination.
Each cube or plug already has a hole specifically for you to place your seed. Just stick your seed into the precut hole and pinch the top closed a bit with your fingers. Don’t worry, you can’t mess this part up As long as the seed makes it in there, you should be good.
This is one of the easiest germination methods and doesn’t leave a lot of room for error. Cannabis seeds and clones can be expensive, and sometimes we have genetics we just can’t afford to lose. When that’s the case, germinate your cannabis with one of the following recommended options to ensure as close to 100% germination rate as possible.
Which Starter Cubes Work Best for Germinating Cannabis?
Rapid Rooters (Highly Recommended For All Setups)
Rapid Rooters are easy to work with – you just stick your cannabis seed in the Rapid Rooter (pointy side down), keep your seed warm and slightly moist, and let the Rapid Rooter do its magic.
Sprouts emerge and roots appear in just a few days.
Rapid Rooter starter cubes are suitable for all growing methods, including hydroponics, coco coir and soil. They work for every setup and come from General Hydroponics, a trusted company (the same one used by NASA) which is known for the quality and consistency of its products.
I highly recommend using Rapid Rooters over any other starter plugs. They are less prone to problems and work great with any growing medium (including hydroponic systems).
Pros of Rapid Rooters
- Easy to Use – You Can’t Really Mess Up
- No Prep or Setup – Open the Package and Go
- Some of the Best Germination Rates of Any Method
Cons of Rapid Rooters
- Can only get 50+ at a time (General Hydroponics currently does not offer fewer plugs per package)
- After opening the package, you only have a week or two before they dry out, so if you’re only germinating one or two seeds, you’ll end up having to throw many of the Rapid Rooters away.
There are a few different options for Rapid Rooters, which can be confusing if you’re not sure what you want. The 3 different options for Rapid Rooters are listed here…
Bag of Rapid Rooters
These are round on bottom instead of being a cube, which means they cannot stand up on their own. These are best suited to a hydroponic setup where the Rapid Rooter will be placed directly in the final destination. In our hydroponic setups, we’ve had near 100% germination rates with Rapid Rooters, better than any other seedling cube we’ve tried.
- Round on bottom (won’t stand up by themselves without support) unless you squish the bottom so it’s flat like this grower did (pic)
- Great for starting with Rapid Rooter directly in final destination (hydro, soil, coco coir, etc)
- Get 50 Rapid Rooters at a time
Rapid Rooters Mat
This type of Rapid Rooters comes in a mat of (usually 98) Rapid Rooters. All the individual Rapid Rooters are sectioned off and have a hole for the seed, but they must be cut or pulled away from the complete mat. Unlike the type of Rapid Rooters that comes in a bag, these ones are made into cubes and are flat on the bottom so they can stand alone. This makes them good for germinating in a shallow pool of water where the cubes need to be able to stand up on their own.
- Easily break cubes off the mat (already sectioned off with pre-cut holes)
- Already shaped like cubes with flat bottoms, so they easily stand up by themselves
- Good for seamlessly transplanting your seedlings somewhere else
- Get 98 Rapid Rooters at a time
Rapid Rooters Tray
The Rapid Rooters tray is perfect for seeds or clones. Allow your young plants to sit in the tray with water until their roots are well formed and ready to be transplanted to your final destination. The standard size tray fits most humidity domes. You can refill the tray with Rapid Rooters from the bag or mat.
As you can see in the pictures below, the Rapid Rooter Tray comes packaged up. Once you open the package, you will see 50 Rapid Rooters already set in the tray. The resting place for each Rapid Rooter has a hole on the bottom so water within the tray is wicked up. The top part comes apart from the bottom.
Just add you seeds and pour some water into the tray – the Rapid Rooters will do everything else for you.
- Perfect for cloning or starting seeds with a humidity dome (standard 10-inch by 20-inch dome like this one – 7-inch height recommended for cannabis seeds or clones)
- Easy to transplant to new destination
- Just add water and seeds, that’s it!
- Whole tray can be refilled with any type of Rapid Rooters (from bag or mat)
- Comes with 50 Rapid Rooters, ready to go
Rockwool Cubes (Not Recommended)
It’s often hydroponic cannabis growers who use Rockwool cubes since these can be safely placed in hydroponic setups, hold a lot of moisture, and are resistant to mold. Rockwool is cheap and easy to find. It comes in convenient cubes. But it does have some major drawbacks…
Pros of Rockwool
- Cheap & Easy to Find
- Inert Medium (useful for hydroponic growers)
Cons of Rockwool
- Bad for the environment (unnatural material that does not break down)
- Bad for your health (especially your lungs) – wear gloves and cover your mouth/eyes when handling Rockwool
- Has a pH that is too high for cannabis, so it must be thoroughly rinsed and treated
- Poor cloning and germination rates
- Difficult for new growers
Rockwool cubes are bad for the environment
Rockwool is not a natural material – it’s made by heating rock and chalk to 3,000°F and air is blown through the mixture to create thin fibers of rocky material
It does not break down naturally and therefore after Rockwool is created, it will remain in that form basically forever, filling up landfills without breaking down for thousands of years.
Rockwool cubes can be bad for your health
Rockwool is dusty and needs to be rinsed thoroughly before use. Little pieces of Rockwool and dust can easily get in your eyes, skin and mouth. Small strands or fibers can get lodged in your lungs if you breathe in Rockwool dust, and it’s unknown if these fibers can ever get out again.
Protect yourself! Always use a mask, goggles and gloves when working with Rockwool.
Rockwool cubes have a high pH until they’re treated
New Rockwool cubes have a high pH – too high for healthy cannabis seed germination. Therefore it’s important to thoroughly rinse Rockwool cubes in pHed water, then let them soak in pHed water overnight before use. Since Rockwool holds onto a lot of water, after soaking they should be given a few days to dry out before planting seeds or making clones.
Rockwool cubes do not get great germination rates
Rockwool can be difficult to germinate marijuana seeds in, so I recommend most beginner growers sprout their seeds using another method like Rapid Rooters (mentioned above) which can also be used in hydroponic applications but are less prone to germination problems.
Many growers have placed seeds in Rockwool cubes, only to wait for weeks and never see seedlings appear.
Some growers seem to have no problems, yet many other growers suffer through very poor germination rates. Some seed companies will not honor seed germination guarantees if the grower uses Rockwool because it is notoriously bad for germination.
If you do use Rockwool, it’s recommended you germinate your seeds using another method like the paper towel method, then transplant your seeds to the Rockwool cubes after roots have already appeared.
Even when following all the best practices, we just have not gotten great germination rates with Rockwool cubes, and it’s common for new seedlings not to make it. When we were using Rockwool (before we switched to Rapid Rooters), we usually lost at least 1 seed out of a batch of 6 or 8.
We also had trouble rooting clones in Rockwool. Rockwool cubes just don’t hold enough air to get plenty of oxygen to the roots, and they tend to hold onto a lot of water and get waterlogged easily. Since Rockwool can hold a lot of water, it’s prone to “drowning” seeds
I highly recommend using Rapid Rooters instead for your hydroponic application (or any grow setup), as they are much more user-friendly and tend to get far better germination rates.
Jiffy Pellets (Recommended for Soil or Coco Coir)
Jiffy Pellets are used in a similar way to Rockwool cubes, though these tend to get much better germination results. Jiffy pellets are not suitable for most hydroponic setups where the roots are grown directly in water, but Jiffy Pellets can be directly transferred into soil or coco coir.
Pros of Jiffy Pellets
- Good Germination Rates for Soil and Coco Coir
- Good for Cloning – read a cannabis cloning tutorial using Jiffy pellets
- Come in dried pellets, so they can be kept for a long time
Cons of Jiffy Pellets
- Not suitable for hydroponic setups
- Must be soaked to expand each pellet before use
How to Use: Soak Jiffy pellets in warm water, which makes the pellets expand in size, as pictured below.
Once the compressed Jiffy pellets have expanded in warm water, gently squeeze excess water from each pellet and you’re ready to go. Treat them the same as Rapid Rooters.
Germination Method 2: Plant marijuana seeds directly in growing medium
Sometimes nature’s way is the easiest way. In nature, marijuana seedlings would sprout in soil, and they would emerge as their taproots start growing down.
As a grower, you can also plant your seeds directly in your final growing medium. This works in all growing mediums, though some can be tougher than others.
One of the biggest benefits of planting your seed directly in the growing medium is you don’t have to worry about shocking your young seedling during transplant. Because your seed is already in its final resting place, your new seedling will immediately start adjusting to the environment. Every time you transplant a sprouted seed, it can cause stress as the young plant needs to readjust its new surroundings.
- Soil – Plant seeds a knuckle deep (0.5-1 inch OR 1.3 cm – 2.5 cm) in moist yet not soaking soil. Use a light or a heating pad to keep things warm. This is one of the easiest marijuana germination methods for beginners.
- Coco Coir or other soilless growing mediums – Plant in a similar way to soil
Germination Method 3: Germination Station
One option for growers is to use a tool which has been specifically designed to provide optimal germination conditions like this germination station with heat mat.
You can make a DIY germination station at home by putting a plastic dome over a plate on a heating pad.
There are benefits to the professionally made germination stations as they work very well and are pretty cheap to buy.
When growers start their cannabis seedlings in a germination station, the seeds are usually germinated in a starter seedling cube.
One of the advantages of starting seeds in starter cubes is your sprouted seeds can easily be transferred right to their next growing medium or container.
I recommend Rapid Rooters as these starter cubes work great for cannabis seeds and can be used in any growing medium including hydroponics, soil, or coco coir. Other starter cubes include Jiffy Peat Pellets, and Rockwool cubes.
Once your seed has sprouted, just make a little hole in your growing medium, and place the entire pellet inside. Make sure growing medium is also moist yet not soaking, like your pellet or cube. The roots will emerge from the bottom of the cube and burrow directly into your growing medium.
Germination Method 4: Soak Marijuana Seeds in Water Overnight
Another method to germinate marijuana seeds is to soak them overnight in slightly warm water, usually done in a glass drinking cup.
This method is especially effective for seeds which have extra hard shells, or seeds which are older (more than a few years old).
The warm overnight soaking can help “wake up” older seeds.
Most viable seeds will start out floating, and then eventually sink to the bottom of your glass after a few hours of soaking.
If soaked in a clear drinking glass, you will see when the little white tap root first breaks through the shell.
Some seeds take longer than others to sprout. Especially older seeds tend to need longer to pierce through their shell. However, if seeds are left soaking too long, and haven’t yet sprouted, they can drown.
Therefore, do not leave seeds soaking in water for more than 24-32 hours.
After 24 hours, I recommend putting any still-ungerminated seeds in a warm, moist place to finish germinating.
Germination Method 5: Paper Towel Method
One way to germinate seeds is to wet a paper towel and then fold your seeds in it, then leave the paper towel in a warm place.
Use cheap paper towels! For some reason, the really cheap paper towels work best because they’re so non-porous. Seeds and their roots lay on top without getting stuck to anything. This is important! The more expensive “cloth-like” paper towels (like Viva brand) aren’t good for germination because the roots actually grow into them instead of laying on top.
If you germinate your seeds in a paper towel, there is the risk of hurting the tap root (the little white root that grows out of your seeds) when moving the sprouted seeds so make sure you are careful when you’re checking to see if the seeds sprouted.
There is also the possibility of having the towel dry out which will kill your new seeds so I recommend putting your paper towel under an upside down bowl or between two paper (or regular) plates.
Check on germinating seeds once every 12 hours or so (don’t disturb them or their roots). You can plant any seeds which have sprouted right away, or leave them for another day or two, to let the others keep up.
How to Plant Your Germinated Cannabis Seeds
After you see that your cannabis seeds have sprouted, you should plant them right away.
You don’t want to touch the little white taproot with your fingers, so either carefully move the seeds, or use tweezers. If you do touch or break the root, the seedling may still survive, but any damage to the root will definitely stunt and slow down growth right in the beginning.
Plant seeds so that the white root faces downward, about a knuckle deep into your growing medium. The top of the seed should be just below the surface of your growing medium.
It can take anywhere from a couple of hours to a couple of days before you see the young seedling emerge from the soil or growing medium. If your marijuana seedling hasn’t sprouted from the soil within 10 days after being placed root-down, it probably isn’t going to make it Even with the best practices and the best seeds, you will occasionally lose a seed. Many times it has nothing to do with you!
First sign of taproots. These are ready to be planted!
Rapid Rooters are nice, but not necessary. You can use them before you transfer your seedlings to their final container. The Rapid Rooter should be cut open lengthwise if you plan on using them for germinated seeds. I use big scissors.
Gently place the germinated seed inside, root down. Place the seed close to the surface so it doesn’t have far to go.
Sometimes you’ll have a taproot that is curved or bent. You don’t want to try to straighten it out! Open the Rapid Rooter you split, and lay the germinated seed down gently. The seed and root will naturally lay on the flattest side. Slowly close the Rapid Rooter, and you’ll see that the bent parts of the root will end up in the “crack” of the Rapid Rooter from where you cut to split it open from the side.
After closing a Rapid Rooter, it’s hard to tell it’s been opened. The texture of Rapid Rooters causes the seeds to stay in place and not “fall down” further into the hole once you’ve got it closed.
Sometimes the shell can get stuck on the seedling, but it will often fall off on its own. If it seems really stuck, you can help the seedling by gently removing it.
Within the first week of germinating seeds, you will notice that some seeds germinate right away and others take a little bit longer. This can be caused by a lot of things, from the age of the seed (old seeds have worse germination rates and tend to take longer) to simple chance. The amount of time does not necessarily have anything to do with how healthy your plant will be in the long run.
Once your seeds are safely planted, you can turn on your grow light. The heat from the lamp improves germination rates, and the light can help your new cannabis seedlings open their first set of leaves. In fact, the first set of leaves will often stay yellow until they get light.
If you will be transplanting your seedlings again, avoid transplanting until they are well established and have a couple of sets of leaves (nodes). Some growers will plant seedlings in a growing medium in a solo cup or peat pot, so they can just cut away the cup for easy transplanting.
When you move seedlings around a lot, it stresses them out and potentially stunts their growth. Too much stress can even kill them. So try to plan from the beginning so that you move your seedlings around as little as possible. once they get bigger, they are a lot more hardy and can stand a lot more stress and movement.
Here are some pictures to give you an idea of the timeline to expect
Sprouted seeds planted in Hydrofarm pellets and placed on soil
If you want, you can put bottles on top to help retain extra humidity (like a cheap humidity dome).
It’s a steady 85 degrees F in there, no idea about the humidity in the bottles.
Marijuana seedlings under T5 Grow Light
Day 7 from seed
Your Cannabis Seedling’s First Few Weeks
During the first few weeks of a young marijuana plant’s life, you have to be careful.
Marijuana seedlings, especially seeds from some of the most potent strains, tend to be a bit delicate.
Seedlings definitely won’t be able to withstand full-strength grow lights or nutrients. They need to have a moist environment, but also can easily be drowned or overwatered.
If you’re planting in soil, start with a balanced potting soil that doesn’t contain extra nutrients. I recommend Happy Frog potting soil mix for young cannabis seedlings, but any plain potting mix from your local garden store will do. Never use Miracle-Gro soil or any soil that has “time-released” nutrients already mixed in. After your plants have grown a few sets of leaves, you can transfer them to a stronger potting mix that contains higher levels of nutrients like Fox Farms Ocean Forest soil, or you can start supplementing with cannabis soil nutrients. Don’t want to use nutrients? Learn how to mix up your own super soil so it has all the nutrients your cannabis plants will need!
If you’re planting in coco coir, a soilless medium, or hydroponics, only add cannabis nutrients at seedling strength, or 1/4 the regular strength, until your plants have grown a few sets of leaves. Then you can slowly start working your way up to full strength nutrient levels.
With young marijuana seedlings, less is more.
You’re trying to give young plants a very small dose of nutrients at first. However, even with young marijuana seedlings, the pH of your water and growing medium is important. Some growers get lucky and happen to have water with the right pH, but if you’re noticing deficiencies and problems with your seedlings, definitely take the time to understand about marijuana root pH and how it affects the plant’s overall health.
If you plan on eventually putting your marijuana seedlings under high intensity grow lights (such as HPS or MH grow lights), you may want to start them out with less intense fluorescent grow lights or compact fluorescent bulbs (CFLs). Or just keep your high intensity grow lights several feet away at first, and slowly move lights closer as your seedlings gets older
CFL bulbs (twisty/spiral bulbs as pictured to the right) are a great source of light for young marijuana seedlings
- CFLs provide the right types of light for seedlings
- CFLs are extremely cheap to buy
- CFLs are easy on your electric bill
- CFLs can be found almost anywhere, at your local hardware store, supermart, grocery store, or online
Keep CFLs or fluorescent lights about 6 inches away from your seedlings. Place your hand where the leaves are to make sure it doesn’t feel too hot. If it’s hot for your after 10 seconds, it’s too hot for your plants.
Once your seedlings have developed their first two sets of leaves, then you can move these lights as close as 2 inches away as long as the lights aren’t too hot.
Remember: If grow lights feels too hot to your hand after 10 seconds, they’re too hot for your marijuana seedlings
Make sure to keep a close eye on your seedlings to ensure they don’t grow too close to the grow lights and burn themselves. Seedlings can grow fast, and many growers have been surprised to find plants have actually grown into the light overnight.
If new seedlings are showing signs of stress, try moving the lights further away and see if that helps.
Once marijuana seedlings are about fourteen days old, they’re ready to start being treated as if they’re in the vegetative stage.
This Timeline Will Help Show You What to Expect
Two round cotyledon leaves, then two “real” (serrated) single-finger cannabis leaves
Next, the single-finger leaves expand, and the next set is usually 3-finger leaves
Next, the cannabis plant will start making 5-finger leaves
Finally, most cannabis plants stop at 7-finger leaves
If you look closely at the above plant, you can see that some of the newer leaves on this plant actually have 9 fingers. It is normal for there to be some variation between leaves – some plants will grow leaves with 11 or even 13 fingers. But the above guide will give you a general idea of what to expect.
Once your cannabis seedling is about fourteen days old, it’s ready to start being treated as if in the vegetative stage.
Make sure you learn about plant training techniques to make the most of your time in the vegetative stage!
Wait! My seed is growing upside down with the roots up; what do I do?
As long as the roots of a cannabis seedling are able to grow down, they will. Roots never grow upward on their own. Seedlings can sense the difference between up and down. Roots always try to grow down. Roots never grow upwards.
So how come sometimes it looks like a cannabis plant is growing with its roots pointing up?
When the seed end is still bent down, all you see is a U-shaped stem/root
Cannabis seeds can look a bit different when germinating. When in doubt, always wait a few days to see if leaves appear before you try to interfere.
Sometimes the stem of a brand new cannabis seedling can look like the roots growing out the top. But if you wait and watch, you’ll see that it’s all part of the plan. Hope these pics help someone!
Sometimes you’ll see what appears to be roots emerging from your cannabis seed, but this is actually the stem. The stem pushes the seed and leaves up, and the main taproot is currently burrowing down to support the seedling
As the seedling emerges you’ll be able to see the leaves (sometimes it will still have the seed stuck on the first leaves, like in the picture above).
The cotyledons (first, round leaves) unfurl, and then the regular cannabis leaves between to grow. Here’s another view of that same seedling from above. Even though it may have looked a bit weird at first, this seedling is completely normal and will grow just fine from now on.
What Size Pot Should I Use?
When growing cannabis plants in a container, you have to choose the size of your pot.
A general guide is to have about 2 gallons per 12″ of height. This isn’t perfect since plants often grow differently, but this is a good rule of thumb.
When in doubt, get a bigger final container size as opposed to a smaller one. Plants that get rootbound from being in a too-small container will grow more slowly and be prone to problems. It’s not good to transfer plants during the flowering/budding stage, so you want to have your cannabis plants in their final container at least 2 weeks before the beginning of flowering/budding. How do I get my cannabis plants to start flowering?
Final Container for Desired Plant Size – General guide
12″ ~ 2-3 gallon container
24″ ~ 3-5 gallon container
36″ ~ 5-7 gallon container
48″ ~ 6-10 gallon container
60″ ~ 8-10+ gallon container
But what size pot should you use for your seedlings?
For fastest growth rates, it’s better to plant young seedlings or clones in a very small container, like a disposable plastic solo cup.
For new seedlings and clones, use a small container if possible
The reason you want to start with a small container is that your plant’s young roots thrive on oxygen. Cannabis plant roots “breathe” oxygen, just like we breathe air, and it’s important that young cannabis roots get plenty of oxygen so the plant can grow as fast as possible.
However, young plant roots do not drink much water yet. When you water seedlings or clones in a very big container, they will use up all the oxygen quickly, and the large size of the container will prevent the growing medium from drying out.
A big plant will drink up all the water quickly, but with seedlings, you’re basically waiting for the growing medium to dry out by itself. While you’re waiting for the container to dry out, your cannabis roots are sitting in a wet environment and not getting much oxygen, slowing down their growth rates.
Poke holes in the bottom of your cup so water can drain out easily!
By planting young seeds in a small container with holes in the bottom, the growing medium will dry out much more quickly, allowing you to water more often. The young cannabis will get plenty of oxygen and water.
Alternative to Solo Cup: Start plants in seedling cube
If you don’t want to have to transplant your young plants, you can start them in a seedling plug or cube and wait until you start seeing roots come out the bottom. At that point, they will be ready to be transferred to a larger container.
What happens if I plant seeds or clones in a big container?
Your cannabis seedlings and clones will definitely survive in a bigger container; they just won’t grow as fast for the first few days or weeks because they aren’t getting as much oxygen.
With a bigger container, you will need to wait longer between waterings, and during that time your plant roots will be getting reduced oxygen.
If you’ve planted your young plant in a large container, try to give only a little bit of water at a time (enough to wet the area around the seedling roots) until the plant is growing vigorously. Once the plant has grown a few sets of leaves, you should start watering cannabis normally so that water drains out the bottom.
One of the advantages of starting young plants in a big container is you won’t have to transfer them to bigger containers as they get older.
If you would like to take advantage of faster vegetative growth from transplanting, view the Complete Cannabis Transplant Guide (with pics!)