How to Spot the 7 Most Common Cannabis Plant Deficiencies by Leaf Symptoms
A cannabis plant is hardy, but its health and vigour will be negatively impacted if it is deprived of essential nutrients. If this is not corrected, it can cause plants to stop growing or even die. Deficiencies in cannabis can be hard to identify, so we have compiled a basic list of what to look out for if things go wrong, and how to fix them.
New cannabis growers are bound to come face to face with a problem or two. Thankfully, cannabis plants are resilient and can stand up on their own in the face of pests or improper growing conditions for a while. But if the problem isn’t rectified in a timely manner, there’s going to be consequences.
One of the biggest mistakes new growers make is overreacting, though. If an iffy situation is spotted, growers should simply acknowledge that and take the time to learn what the problem is and how to properly fix it.
This guide will go over some of the most common problems that can be identified by simply inspecting the leaves. It also will explain how to proceed and get those plants on the road to recovery… and a better yield!
While this definitely isn’t a conclusive list, here are some common growing problems and how they may be identifiable on cannabis leaves (read the rest of this guide for more in-depth help):
- Yellow leaves: Could be a sign of all deficiencies mentioned below, or light burn
- Leaves that curl upward: Could be a sign of potassium deficiency, or overwatering
- Brown leaves: Could be a sign of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sulphur, manganese deficiency. Could also be nutrient burn (more solid brown colouring) or heat stress (brown on the edges)
- Leaves droop: Could be a sign of overwatering
- Leaves curl downwards: Could be a sign of potassium or phosphorus deficiency, or overwatering
Nitrogen deficiency in a cannabis plant
Nitrogen deficiency is probably the most common deficiency reported by cannabis growers. It’s usually easy to identify and correct as soon as it becomes apparent, although it shares a basic resemblance to several other deficiencies in the early stages.
In the early stages of nitrogen deficiency, leaves appear to be too light in colour—almost yellowish-green—compared to the desired deep green of healthy leaves. Nitrogen-deficient leaves also typically have slightly darker veins compared to the very light colour of the leaf tissue itself—although the contrast is not as marked as in some other deficiencies.
At the other end of the spectrum, nitrogen toxicity results in leaves taking on a very dark green hue that can look almost black in extreme cases.
In severe cases of nitrogen deficiency, the leaves appear lighter and lighter in colour, and eventually begin to dry out and die. The larger leaves on the lower and outer parts of the plant are often the first to be affected and the first to die.
How to fix nitrogen deficiency
If nitrogen deficiency becomes apparent in the later stages of flowering, it doesn’t need to be corrected. In fact, it’s natural for the older leaves to drop off and die at this point as they are no longer needed.
However, a nitrogen deficiency in vegetative growth or early flower can severely impact overall yield and quality, as it affects the plant’s ability to photosynthesize energy. Nitrogen deficiency can usually be corrected by simply increasing the strength of your normal NPK-based feed, but if fine-tuning is required then nitrogen-only additives are not hard to find.
Phosphorus deficiency in a cannabis plant
Phosphorus deficiencies are rare, but should be cause for concern. If it affects plants in the vegetative stage, it can cause reduced growth rates, small leaves, weak roots, and plants that are generally lacking in vigour. In the early stages, phosphorus deficiency usually causes leaves to appear dark but washed-out, with very dark veins and somewhat lighter leaf tissue.
As it progresses, purplish discolourations begin to appear on the main part of the leaves and the leaf edges begin to turn brown and curl downwards. The leaf petioles (the small stalk attaching the leaf to the main stem) may also begin to turn a purplish colour. In the final stages, large patches of the leaves become purplish-brown and dead, while the remaining sections turn mottled yellowish-green.
Again, phosphorus deficiencies usually affect the outer, lower leaves first. Unlike nitrogen deficiency though, phosphorus deficiency at any stage is cause for concern, as the plants continue to require high levels of phosphorus throughout the flowering period.
How to fix phosphorus deficiency
There are several ways you can fix a phosphorus deficiency. Just remember to take it slow. If any remedy is overdone, the plant could end up not getting enough of other nutrients and fare worse than if it had been left alone. With that said, here are a few methods for fixing it:
- Temperature – Don’t let the temperature drop below 15 degrees Celsius, as colder temperatures make it difficult for cannabis plants to absorb phosphorus.
- Water correctly – Ensure the plants are watered correctly. Too much water and soil that’s too packed can lead to a phosphorus deficiency.
- pH Products – Use a pH up or pH down to ensure the roots have the correct pH level. It should be between 6 and 7.
- Add Phosphorus Sources – Add sources rich in phosphorus to the soil. Some sources that can be used are fish meal, warm casting, soft rock phosphate and crab shell. (Or simply use a good organic fertilizer that automatically ensures balanced soil)
Once the problem is corrected, new leaves shouldn’t show the discolouring signs of phosphorus deficiency. Keep in mind that old leaves will likely not recover and that’s perfectly normal.
Tutorial: Cannabis plant nutrient deficiencies can be hard to identify. Use this guide to help you figure out what’s wrong and how you can fix it.
Problem: A cannabis phosphorus deficiency generally appears on leaves from the lower/older parts of the plant. The lower leaves may turn dark green or yellow, and start getting spots or big splotches that look brown, bronze or even a little blue. The leaves may thicken and curl, and the affected leaves feel stiff. Sometimes the stems of the plant turn bright red or purple, but not always.
Sometimes accompanied by a Calcium deficiency, as Phosphorus and Calcium interact with each other in the plant.
A cannabis phosphorus deficiency usually appears with some or all of the following symptoms:
- tends to affect the lower and older leaves of the plant
- sometimes a phosphorus deficiency is accompanied by bright red stems (though not always), though if you have red stems but no other symptoms, it’s typically not something to worry about
- leaves darken (turning a dark green, blue or grayish color) and may appear shiny
- leaves may start turning yellow in places if the phosphorus deficiency is left untreated, or if the deficiency is combined with other nutrients deficiencies and/or pH problems. However, yellow leaves is typically not associated with the beginning of a phosphorus deficiency.
- leaves get bronze, purple or brown spots and splotches
- leaves thicken and may feel dry or stiff
- stems sometimes turn bright red or purple, but not always
- sometimes accompanied by a Calcium deficiency, as Phosphorus and Calcium interact with each other inside the plant
- this deficiency is more common after buds start forming, when the plant is using a lot of Phosphorus
Phosphorus deficiencies in the vegetative stage usually appear at the bottom of the plant on some of the oldest leaves, and will progressively climb up the plant if left unchecked.
The progression of a cannabis phosphorus deficiency
A phosphorus deficiency tends to be more common after plants start making buds in the flowering stage. Cannabis plants tend to love phosphorus in the flowering/budding stage and it is unlikely for a cannabis plant to get too much phosphorus using standard nutrients formulated for a flowering plant like cannabis. Nearly all flowering nutrients will come with an abundance of phosphorus for your plants. So if you’re seeing a cannabis phosphorus deficiency while using standard cannabis nutrients, chances are you actually have a root pH problem (explained below in the solution section)!
Phosphorus (P) is used by your cannabis plant in all phases of growth. It is one of the 3 major nutrients (N-P-K) listed on the front of most nutrient bottles, and phosphorus will be represented by the second number that appears.
When there is a phosphorus deficiency, the lower (oldest) leaves turn dark green. Leaves occasionally get a bluish or bronze tinge, and may thicken or curl downward before exhibiting dark gray, bronze or purplish splotches. Sometimes the stems of the affected leaves will turn bright red or purplish, usually starting from underneath.
It’s common to see a Phosphorus deficiency accompanied by the symptoms of a Calcium deficiency, as those nutrients interact with each other in the plant.
Sometimes you will get a cannabis phosphorus deficiency, and the stems do not appear red or purple at all, or the coloring may not be pronounced.
The leaf below was at the bottom of the plant and turned dark green and shiny, with a bluish tinge. Cannabis phosphorus deficiencies usually appear on the lower/older parts of the plant. The leaf then started showing the spots of a phosphorus deficiency where it was being touched by light (the parts of the leaf working hardest). The leaf began to curl downwards and turn yellow.
Notice that the stems or veins never turned red or purple on this leaf, except for some parts that were actually affected by the phosphorus deficiency.
A common symptom of a cannabis phosphorus deficiency is bright red or purple stems, though it doesn’t appear on all affected plants. Red stems can also be caused by direct light exposure (like a “tan”)
Another example of bright red stems that may be the result of a Phosphorus deficiency, or possibly direct light exposure.
It’s important to remember that some cannabis strains naturally grow with red or purple stems even when all their nutrient needs are being fulfilled, so red or purple stems is not a symptom to worry about on its own.
Do not mistake natural reddish-purple colored stems for a phosphorous deficiency!
When you notice that stems are turning red or purple starting from underneath, it may be a sign of a phosphorus deficiency only if accompanied by other symptoms. If the only symptom shown by your plant is red or purple stems, and you are not seeing any other signs of splotches or unhealthy leaves, the red or purple stems are likely caused by the genetics of your plant. If that’s the case, you have nothing to worry about.
Phosphorus is used heavily by cannabis plants in the flowering phase to produce buds, and is a crucial component of photosynthesis (turning light into energy for the plant).
Some strains of cannabis use much more phosphorus than others, or be more susceptible to a phosphorus deficiency, and you may have many plants in the exact same setup with only some of the plants showing signs of a phosphorus deficiency.
Solution For Cannabis Phosphorus Deficiency
1.) Adjust pH to Correct Range
Your cannabis plant may show signs of a phosphorus deficiency if the pH at the roots is not in the right range. That is because when the pH of your root zone is off, your cannabis cannot properly absorb phosphorus through its roots. Therefore the first step is to ensure that you have the correct pH for your growth medium. Learn more about pH and cannabis.
Phosphorus is best absorbed by cannabis in soil at a root pH of 6.2 – 7.0. Phosphorus is best absorbed by cannabis in hydro at a root pH of 5.5 – 6.2. If you believe you have a cannabis phosphorus deficiency, it’s important to check the pH of your root zone to make sure the deficiency isn’t caused by the pH being too high or too low.
If you suspect your growing cannabis plant has a phosphorus deficiency, flush your system with clean, pH’d water that contains a regular dose of cannabis-friendly nutrients that includes phosphorus. This will remove any nutrient salts that may be affected the uptake of phosphorus and help restore pH to the proper levels.
- In soil, phosphorus is best absorbed by the roots in the 6.2 – 7.0 pH range (in soil, it’s generally recommended to keep the pH between 6.0 – 7.0, but phosphorus specifically tends to be best absorbed above 6.2 and below 7.0)
- In hydro, phosphorus is best absorbed by the roots in the 5.5 – 6.2 pH range (in hydro, it’s generally recommended to keep the pH between 5.5 – 6.5, but phosphorus specifically tends to be best absorbed below 6.2)
2.) Take Good Care of the Roots
Wet, compact soil or overwatering can trigger a phosphorus deficiency to appear even when all other factors are perfect. So make sure you water your plants properly every time to help prevent a phosphorus deficiency.
3.) Provide the Right Temperature
Cooler temperatures lower than 60°F (15°C), as well as large temperature swings, can make it harder for the plant to absorb phosphorus. Cannabis plants are therefore more likely to show signs of a phosphorus deficiency when the temperature drops too low, or if they go through a cold spell.
Cannabis likes a comfortable room temperature (they like about the same temperatures as we do).
4.) Give the Right Nutrients
Most growers have actually already given plenty of phophorus to their cannabis plants since it is found abundantly in quality soil and cannabis-friendly nutrients. However, even if you are giving phosphorus, it’s important to give your cannabis the right ratio of nutrients.
An excess of Fe and Zn may cause the symptoms of a phosphorus deficiency by preventing the plant from being able to absorb phosphorus properly. If you believe there may be a buildup of nutrient salts in your growing medium (or if you are growing in hydro and have not recently flushed or changed your reservoir) you should make sure it’s not an excess of other nutrients that is actually causing the phosphorus deficiency to appear. Flush your plant thoroughly with properly pH’ed water containing a regular dose of cannabis nutrients including phosphorus, or completely change your reservoir if you believe that an excess of nutrient salts may be causing the phosphorus deficiency.
Sources of phosphorus:
If you’ve tried everything else, then you may try adding a higher percentage of phosphorus to your feeding schedule and see if that helps clear up the problem for your plant. Cannabis plants love phosphorus, and therefore it is unlikely that you will give your cannabis too much phosphorus.
Most nutrient systems that are formulated for a plant like cannabis will carry and abundance of phosphorus, especially in budding/flowering formulas, so it is unlikely that you will see signs of a phosphorus deficiency before other nutrient problems when using nutrient systems formulated for cannabis (as long as you keep your root pH in the correct range and prevent the plants from getting cold or being overwatered). If you’ve got very high powered lights, or if your plants are growing in direct sunlight, they may be going through a lot more phosphorus in the flowering stage than average and may need you to provide extra phosphorus to make sure buds get as big as they could be.
Just remember that if there’s no actual phosphorus deficiency currently appearing on your cannabis plant, adding more phosphorus is probbaly not going to help plants grow better or make bigger buds – in fact adding too much phosphorus may actually hurt your plants by preventing the uptake of other nutrients! While it’s difficult to overdose your plants on phosphorus, adding too much compared to other nutrients will often cause other strange & unexpected deficiencies to appear.
5.) Take Good Care of the Roots
Phosphorus deficiencies can show up with the plant is having root problems or if the plant is overwatered, even if the pH is right and the phosphorus is there. Proper watering practices help plants grow healthy and avoid a host of problems!
6.) Watch for Recovery
After going through all the above steps, watch to make sure that the phosphorus deficiency starts to clear up within a few days to a week or so. After a phosphorus deficiency is cleared up, the problem (brown spots, unhealthy lower leaves, red/purple stems, etc) will stop appearing on new leaves, usually within a week.
Please note that leaves which have been damaged by a phosphorus deficiency will probably never recover or turn green, so you want to pay attention to other leaves for signs of recovery.
If you cannot get rid of your phosphorus deficiency, please consult our 7-Step Cure to 99% of Cannabis Growing Problems
- Bronze or brown patches
- Brown or slimy roots
- Brown or yellow leaf tips/edges
- Buds dying
- Buds look odd
- Bugs are visible
- Curling or clawing leaves
- Dark leaves
- Drooping plant
- Holes in leaves
- Mold or powder
- Pink or purple on leaves
- Red stems
- Shiny or smooth leaves
- Spots or markings
- Twisted growth
- Wilting leaves
- Yellow between leaf veins
- Yellow leaves
This page is part of our Plant Doctor series. You can use our tool to filter by symptom and help diagnose your plant.
Phosphorus deficiencies cause dark splotches on leaves and can appear at the bottom of the plant on some of the oldest leaves. Learn to spot & fix the issue.