Want to know the difference between male and female cannabis plants? Read on to know what sexing cannabis is and how hermaphrodite cannabis plants look. Hydroponic Marijuana Sexing Marijuana sexing simply means determining the gender of your marijuana. While cannabis occasionally may be hermaphroditic (having both pistils and stamens), generally, Male vs Female Cannabis Cannabis is a dioecious plant, which means it has male and female flowers on separate plants. When the male plant enters the reproductive stage, it will develop male pollen sacs. The female plant will produce flowers ready to accept the pollen. This also means that cannabis is not true to seed,
Sexing Cannabis: How to tell if your plant is male or female?
If you grow regular cannabis seeds you will find the resulting plants to be a mix of male and female cannabis plants. Apart from breeders, most people discard the male plants as soon as they are identified. This prevents them pollinating the female plants, which would fill the buds with seeds.
But before you throw any plants away, you need to be confident about the differences between male and female cannabis plants. Identifying male and female cannabis is known as sexing cannabis plants.
Difference between male and female cannabis plants
Most people grow cannabis for the potent buds. That means growing female cannabis plants. Male cannabis plants do produce THC, but not generally in the amounts worth the inconvenience of growing them. Few people (other than cannabis breeders) want to see seeds in their cannabis buds.
Female plants produce the buds we are familiar with. Male plants produce small pollen sacs, these look like small balls. When they open they look like miniature bananas, releasing cream-coloured pollen dust.
What does a hermaphrodite cannabis plant look like?
Hermaphrodite cannabis plants, also known as ‘hermies’, display characteristics of both male and female cannabis plants. Just like males plants, hermaphrodite cannabis plants are also usually removed from grow rooms to prevent pollination (and therefore unwanted seeding) of buds.
Sexing cannabis plants pictures
Male vs female cannabis plants look different and grow a little differently too. Male plants are often taller, giving them a pollen distribution advantage when their pollen sacs eventually open. The pollen sacs form at the nodes on the stem. Pollen can be collected and frozen if required e.g. for breeding purposes.
Pictures of male and female cannabis plants are a useful reminder to the novice grower should there be any doubt identifying male and female cannabis plants. Sexing cannabis, and understanding the difference between male and female cannabis plants prevents the disappointment of finding seeds in your buds later.
Male cannabis plant picture
Female plants produce the buds familiar to cannabis growers. Ensuring that no pollen is present keeps the buds seed-free, just the way the connoisseur grower likes it! Male or female cannabis seedlings can’t usually be separated/identified by sight alone. Cannabis professionals sometimes use DNA testing of leaf material from a young cannabis plant to determine whether it is male or female. This gives the professional cannabis grower the opportunity to identify his cannabis plants as male or female many weeks before the plant sex would normally be revealed.
Those interested in learning more about the various forms of DNA testing of cannabis plants may wish to check out Delta Leaf Laboratories. As well as offering a $10 DNA test for plant sex, they can also test for the types of future cannabinoids that are likely to be produced by your plants.
Cannabis sex is usually clearly visible soon after the plant is placed in bloom conditions. However, the observant cannabis grower may also occasionally notice that some plants can be identified during veg growth.
Male and female cannabis can be grown from regular seeds. Feminised seeds tend to give rise to around 95% female plants. Images of male and female cannabis plants are useful if the less experienced grower is unsure. Cannabis male female identification is an easy skill to learn.
Female cannabis plant picture
Hermaphrodite cannabis plant pictures can show varying numbers of pollen sacs. Small numbers of them can be plucked off and the plant can be saved. Heavily affected hermies are often simply removed. Any seeds produced by cannabis hermaphrodite plants should be treated with caution – they may give rise to hermaphrodite cannabis plants if germinated.
Hermaphrodite cannabis plant picture
How and when to tell if your cannabis plant is male or female
If you grow from feminised cannabis seeds or autoflowering seeds you may rarely see male plants. Male pollen sacs are easy to see, allowing males to be easily identified. Sexing cannabis pictures are a useful reference if you are new to the subject.
Sometimes, if bloom has only recently begun, it can be difficult to know for sure if you have male or female cannabis plants. If unsure take another look a day or two later, it may be easier to tell the difference.
Male and female cannabis seeds
Simply looking at a cannabis seed appearance can’t tell you whether you will have male or female plants in future. Only the genetics inside the seed will determine the final plant type.
Some old school growers and breeders prefer to use regular cannabis seeds which will produce male and female cannabis plants. But 95% of cannabis seeds sold are feminised seeds or autoflower seeds. These will usually only produce female plants.
Few cannabis growers can be bothered with the hassle of producing their own seeds. It’s easier to buy the best cannabis seeds they can get from a seedbank they can trust. If you grow good quality photoperiod feminised seeds, or autoflower seeds you should be assured of female plants and a great harvest.
Hydroponic Marijuana Sexing
Marijuana sexing simply means determining the gender of your marijuana. While cannabis occasionally may be hermaphroditic (having both pistils and stamens), generally, plants are wholly male or female. After four or five weeks you will start to have a chance at sexing the plants. Although generally considered one of the trickiest parts of growing your own marijuana. Marijuana sexing is quite straightforward and will become easier as you gain more experience. The reason for sexing your plants is so that you can remove male plants before they have a chance to pollinate the females. If this occurs the females will start to develop seeds and this will divert their energy from THC production. Which if course is not cool. Left to their own devices plants will develop pre-flowers after around 4 – 6 weeks. This is the right time to remove the males and commence the flowering stage. Marijuana is a dioecious plant which simply means that the males will produce pollen and the females will produce seeds. Although, as in other forms of life, hermaphrodites do occur. Unless you are a breeder or otherwise growing for seed stock, it is preferential to have all female plants as it is the unfertilized calyx or buds which are the most psychoactive and potent part of the plant, the THC, CBN and CBD. So your seedless buds (sinsemilla) are the most preferred harvest for smoking as no energy or weight has gone into making seeds. Therefore, to use energy, time and space on male plants is wasteful of limited resources; thus they should be identified as early as possible and either segregated (for breeding) or destroyed before they release their pollen. Occasionally marijuana will show pre-flowers (immature indicators of the sex of the plant) while still in the vegetative state, but generally require the shift to the flowering phase (shortening the light regimen to 12/12 – 12 hours of light and 12 hours of total dark).
Flowering is the only true way to sex your plants
Although you may get a clue from their growth patterns before flowering. Male cannabis plants tend to be leggier than female plants with a longer internodal length. Female plants are squatter with more leaves and a bushier aspect. Male pre-flowers should be clearly visible to the eye, although a magnifying glass will make your job easier. Male flowers form at the junctions of the branches and stem and the pollen sacs form little balls. Female pre-flowers will also form at the junction of branches and stem but will normally start to form at the fourth or fifth branches up from the base. They are easily distinguished by the appearance of pairs of tiny white hairs, known as pistils. Some growers force flowering by changing the light cycle before the appearance of pre-flowers. They then watch their plants closely for the appearance of flowers and remove the males. However, others believe that this can stress the plants and is not a proven way of speeding up the process as plants forced in this way may spend longer in the flowering phase, cancelling out the advantage.
A magnifying glass is helpful though not necessary. Look near the top branches right where they fork from the stalk. The male sex organ will look like a small playing card-type club. The female sex organ will display a calyx with two small white hairs protruding from the top. If you are unsure or unable to determining the sex, then simply wait a few more days until the organs are more mature and easier to identify. The males are still way too young to create pollen so there is no danger in waiting.
- Force flowering by putting the plant under 12/12 light cycle. The drawbacks of this are that two separate rooms or grow spaces are required. More importantly the plant gets hormonally confused being switched between vegging to flowering, then back to vegging and finally flowering once again. This method allows you to cull your males early, but most likely will delay your harvest for a few weeks.
- Cover a lower branch with black plastic cut from a garbage bag. Do not use a thin bag that allows light to pass through. This must be put on every 12 hours and removed every 12 hours at the same time. The branch will show its sex long before the rest of the plant while still allowing it to ‘veg’ otherwise normally.
Occasionally a plant will exhibit both sexes. This usually occurs when a female plant is late into flower and remains unpollenated. In a last ditch effort to create seeds, marijuana plants have an emergency back-up plan: they sometimes create a small number of male flowers in an attempt to pollinate themselves. Some growers pinch off the few visible ‘bananas’; others may remove and/or destroy the plant so as not to pollenate a whole crop. Marijuana sexing is not difficult once you familiarize yourself with some basic plant physiology.
Cloning marijuana is a great method to use as all shoots are genetically identical to the parent. Thus if you find a donor parent plant that you like (one with desirable genetic traits) and is large and healthy enough to remove branches for cuttings, you may skip the whole sexing ritual as they are 100% the same sex as the parent.
Feminized marijuana seeds
These are a relatively new phenomenon on the cannabis culture scene, and while looked down upon by some old-timers, purists and large-scale growers, are a great boon to the small grower with limited space and time. It is currently not possible to tell the sex of a cannabis seed by examining it (though many untested myths abound), but the mix of males and females is roughly half and half. The larger the amount of seed purchased and/or planted, the closer the ratio will be to 50%. However, if you purchase a small quantity such as five seeds, it is possible to get all males, all females or any mix in between. Feminized marijuana seeds are not foolproof nor 100% guaranteed, but ratios of 90%+ female are quite common.
Sexing Cannabis Seeds
Sexing cannabis seeds is vital for success. Whether a sensimilla grower or seed breeder it is important to know the boys from the girls.
Male vs Female Cannabis
Cannabis is a dioecious plant, which means it has male and female flowers on separate plants. When the male plant enters the reproductive stage, it will develop male pollen sacs. The female plant will produce flowers ready to accept the pollen. This also means that cannabis is not true to seed, i.e. seeds from a cross pollination will not directly represent the flowers they originated from and instead contain genetic material from both the mother and father plant. Because cannabis has both male and female sexes, you need to identify and understand the differences. Cannabis gender cannot be identified by seed or growth patterns and the only reliable method is to observe the reproductive organs that develop.
Growing for weed or seed
When you begin your growing journey, you will need to decide what your goal is. If you want to grow flowers for consumption or processing, you will want to ensure you only grow female plants that do not get pollinated. Seedless cannabis flowers are referred to as sensimilla and are more potent and flavourful than seeded cannabis flower. This is because when the female plant is pollinated, it stops directing energy to producing oils and cannabinoids. Instead, the pollinated plant focuses all its’ energy on producing seeds. Seeded cannabis is undesirable for medicinal and recreational growers yet it is first prize for many hemp and food crop growers, as well as breeders.
If you want to create seeds, you need to grow both female and male plants. You can separate your male plant as it starts to produce pollen. Then collect the pollen and pollinate only one or two branches on your female plant. By doing this you can enjoy the fruits of your labour and produce seeds for the next season. The other option is to simply let a male or two pollinate all the plants over the growing season. Leading to a harvest of hundreds to millions of seeds.
Sexing Cannabis Seeds
The best way to identify your plants gender is to wait until it is sexually mature and inspect the nodes or growth points. Plants show sexual maturity by displaying alternate branching and “pre-flowers”. These traits begin in the early flowering stages or late vegetative stages. Pre-flowers are reproductive organs that begin developing before the plant fully enters the reproductive stage and can be used as early identifiers. Male plants produce pollen sacs which look like round balls hanging off the plant.
Female plants produce bracts and white hair like pistils. Pollen sacs are rounder in structure where bracts appear more angular with a thin white pistil growing from within. It is wise to wait until you are entirely sure of your plants’ sex before deciding what to do with it. Not all plants produce the same looking organs and early identification can be tricky for some cultivars. Paying careful attention at all stages of growth will ensure that you are able to far better control the quality and results of your grow.
Cannabis sex isn’t that simple
As if cannabis isn’t woke enough, it can also occasionally be gender fluid. In cases of poor genetics, stressful environment or purposeful reversal, the cannabis plant can display both sexes at once. This is called an intersex trait or “hermie”. Hermies are traditionally undesirable as they may seed crops that are intended to be seedless. Thereby greatly reducing the value of the crop.
However, in recent times breeders have perfected the art of using these traits to their advantage. Femisied cannabis seeds are created by forcefully introducing intersex traits in a female plant. Then using its pollen to pollinate other stable clones of the same female plants. This means that the seeds made from the cross will be identical to the mother plant and almost always female. These are known as feminized seeds. Nowadays most breeders will use chemicals to induce this change in the plant, however almost any stress of the right intensity can induce intersex traits across the spectrum.
It’s easier than ever
Always ask first. If you are unsure about sexing cannabis seeds, there are many online resources you can draw from. Facebook groups make a great place to share and learn from others. Similarly online forums are an excellent resource to browse and interact with other growers without compromising your anonymity. But be warned, there are as many unhelpful opinions as there are helpful. As not all comments are from experienced growers. Try and find a community of people whom you feel comfortable with and have a healthy track record.
You should always source your genetics from reliable and trustworthy providers. There are few things more frustrating than finding an unwanted hermie a few weeks from harvest. In South Africa it is now very easy to access high end and reliable genetics. Whether you want to start from seed or clone, there are multiple vendors supplying feminised seeds and clones. For the aspiring breeders, some vendors even supply regular seeds and male pollen that you can apply at your convenience.
Get the right grow gear
There’s an old proverb about not building your house on the sand and how you should plan for success. Growing A+ cannabis requires a dedication and flexible budget for the happiest results. Don’t be afraid to invest a little bit in the correct grow medium and nutrients, it will make all the difference.
We hope that we have taken some of the mystery out of sexing cannabis seeds. Honestly though, it will be surprisingly easy to get the hang of sexing cannabis seeds in no time at all. You will spot the signs and differences quickly with a well-trained eye and should be well on your way to beautiful big buds. If you still need a little help spotting the boys from the girls? Please contact our grow pros for some top shelf advice.